Identification

Name
Ferrous sulfate anhydrous
Commonly known or available as Ferrous sulfate
Accession Number
DB13257  (DBSALT000084)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Ferrous sulfate is also known as Green vitriol. It is of synthetic origin and belongs to the pharmacological groups called hematological agents and iron salts. The molecular weight of ferrous sulfate is 278.00 [11]. This medication is an iron supplement used to treat or prevent low blood levels of iron (e.g., for anemia or during pregnancy) [18].

Twice the number of ferrous gluconate or ferrous fumarate tablets (other forms of iron for ingestion) are required to provide the amount of elemental iron in ferrous sulfate tablets [22]. For this reason, ferrous sulfate is the gold standard (most commonly prescribed) oral iron therapy in the UK and many other countries [10].

Interestingly, research has demonstrated that unabsorbed dietary iron may possibly increase free radical production in the colon to concentrations that could lead to mucosal cell damage or increased production of carcinogens [33], [34].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • iron sulfate (1:1)
  • iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)
  • iron(II) sulfate
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ferrous sulfate39R4TAN1VT7782-63-0SURQXAFEQWPFPV-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Ferrous sulfate dihydrateG0Z544944910028-21-4KFJBRJOPXNCARV-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Ferrous sulfate monohydrateRIB00980VW17375-41-6XBDUTCVQJHJTQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Ferrous sulfate sesquihydrate1OA214846O13463-43-9JJUUPAANEJLKEY-UHFFFAOYSA-J
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
IronunknownE1UOL152H77439-89-6XEEYBQQBJWHFJM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Ferrous cationionicGW89581OWR15438-31-0CWYNVVGOOAEACU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ferinsol DropsSolution / drops125 mgOralMead Johnson Nutritionals1951-12-311996-09-30Canada
Fero Grad FilmtabTablet, extended release105 mgOralAbbott1961-12-312008-06-06Canada
Ferrous SulfateTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2014-07-01Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateTablet325 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2001-02-19Not applicableUs50436 589020180907 15195 c9j3u3
Ferrous SulfateTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2017-05-18Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateTablet325 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2001-02-19Not applicableUs54569 454520180907 15195 5je2x2
Ferrous SulfateTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2014-07-01Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateTablet325 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2001-02-19Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-07-222013-01-15Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fero Grad 500Ferrous sulfate (105 mg) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbott1961-12-311999-08-09Canada
Ferrous SulfateFerrous sulfate (65 mg/1) + Calcium (20 mg/1)TabletOralMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Formule No 204 Profil TabFerrous sulfate (9.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (83.45 mg) + Potassium (35 mg)TabletOralPharmalab Inc.1987-12-312001-07-30Canada
Hemarexin TabFerrous sulfate (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg) + Calcium (125 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (3 mcg) + Nicotinamide (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (5 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg) + Vitamin A (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralLab Bio Chimique Inc.,Division Of Technilab Pharma Inc.1997-12-172004-08-03Canada
Hormodausse Plus Calc Et D TabFerrous sulfate (5 mg) + Calcium (500 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (2.3 mcg) + Nicotinamide (6.86 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (2 mg)TabletOralLaboratoires Charton Laboratories1988-12-311999-01-16Canada
Iberet 500Ferrous sulfate (105 mg) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (0.025 mg) + Nicotinamide (30 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Riboflavin (6 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (6 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbott1965-12-312007-07-31Canada
K.L. Vitamin-mineralFerrous sulfate (6.3 mg) + Ascorbic acid (21 mg) + Biotin (105 mcg) + Calcium (250 mg) + Calcium Phosphate (150 mg) + Cholecalciferol (140 unit) + Chromium (42 mcg) + Copper (0.7 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (2.1 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.140 mg) + Magnesium (80 mg) + Manganese (0.7 mg) + Nicotinamide (7 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (3.5 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.0525 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.7 mg) + Riboflavin (0.6 mg) + Sodium selenate (24.5 mcg) + Sodium molybdate (25 mcg) + Thiamine (0.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (1750 unit) + Zinc (5.25 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10.5 unit)PowderOralAbundance Naturally LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralFerrous sulfate (4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (50 mg) + Beta carotene (1600 unit) + Biotin (50 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (2 mcg) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium anhydrous (1.6 mg) + Folic Acid (0.1 mg) + Magnesium (50 mg) + Nicotinamide (15 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Thiamine (1 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 unit)Tablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-kid Vitamins & IronFerrous sulfate (5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (2.5 mcg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Thiamine (10 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-V Multivitamins & MineralsFerrous sulfate (4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Biotin (200 mcg) + Calcium (125 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (4 mcg) + Ergocalciferol (200 unit) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (50 mg) + Manganese (0.5 mg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (8 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (10 mg) + Thiamine (9 mg) + Vitamin E (10 unit) + Zinc (2 mg)Tablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Exact-Rx SODIUM SULFACETAMIDE and SULFER 10%/5% CleanserFerrous sulfate (50 mg/1g) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1g)LotionTopicalExact Rx, Inc.2011-08-012017-04-20Us
Ferrous SulfateFerrous sulfate (65 mg/1)TabletOralBoca Pharmacal, Inc.2010-09-142018-06-30Us
Ferrous SulfateFerrous sulfate (65 mg/1)TabletOralHealthlife of Usa2017-12-05Not applicableUs
Multi Vitamin Drops with Fluoride and IronFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (5 [iU]/1mL)Solution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-182016-07-29Us
Multi Vitamin Drops with Fluoride with IronFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A (1500 [iU]/1mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (5 [iU]/1mL)LiquidOralStratus Pharmaceuticals2014-09-012015-12-15Us
Multi-Vit with Fluoride and IronFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (5 [iU]/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)SolutionOralPar Pharmaceutical1998-01-072021-02-28Us
Multi-Vitamin Drops with Fluoride and IronFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (5 [iU]/1mL)LiquidOralMethod Pharmaceuticals2017-02-24Not applicableUs
MultiVitamin Drops with Fluoride and IronFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Tocopherol (5 [iU]/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)LiquidOralSancilio & Company, Inc.2017-08-242017-09-11Us
Quflora FE Pediatric DropsFerrous sulfate (9.5 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (36 mg/1mL) + Biotin (3 ug/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Cyanocobalamin (2 ug/1mL) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (5 [iU]/1mL) + Levomefolate glucosamine (37.5 ug/1mL) + Nicotinamide (4 mg/1mL) + Pantothenic acid (1 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin (0.6 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)LiquidOralCarwin Associates, Inc2017-04-21Not applicableUs
Tri-Vit With Fluoride And Iron DropsFerrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)SolutionOralPar Pharmaceutical1997-11-172021-03-31Us
International/Other Brands
Anemifer / Aritoferon / Bioron / Blissferon / Caron / Dyaferon / Fe-Plus / Feklon / Feromin / Ferrifol / Ferrocebrina Solucion / Ferrogeme / Ferroglobin / Ferrograd / Ferrolin / Ferrosi / Ferrosi sulfas / Ferrous Sulfate Washington Pharm / Ferrous Sulfate-Minsheng Pharm / Fertonic / Fesyrup / Hierro Fabra / Hierro Richet / Hierro Vannier / Iberol / Inshel / Iron-200 / Jeferin / Kdiron / Kidiron / Pediafer Goutt / Pharmafer / Rhea Ferrous Sulfate / Sulfas Ferrosus / Sulfato Ferroso / Sulfato Ferroso Ecar / Sulfato Ferroso Kronos / Sulfato Ferroso L.Ch. / Sulfato Ferroso Richet / Sulfato Ferroso Sant Gall Friburg / Sulfato Ferroso Valma / TGI / Tibilin / United Home Fersulfate Iron / Valdefer / Vitafer-Fol
Categories
UNII
2IDP3X9OUD
CAS number
7720-78-7
Weight
Average: 151.908
Monoisotopic: 151.886671311
Chemical Formula
FeO4S
InChI Key
BAUYGSIQEAFULO-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/Fe.H2O4S/c;1-5(2,3)4/h;(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+2;/p-2
IUPAC Name
lambda2-iron(2+) sulfate
SMILES
[Fe++].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia [25].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

The pharmacodynamics of ferrous sulfate can be summarized as follows: oxygen transport and storage, electron transport and energy metabolism, antioxidant and beneficial pro-oxidant functions, oxygen sensing, and DNA replication and repair [31].

Ferrous sulfate facilitates oxygen transport by hemoglobin (Hb). It is utilized as an iron supply as it replaces the Fe found in Hb, myoglobin and other enzymes [26].

Iron is needed by the human body to maintain optimal health, particularly for helping to form red blood cells (RBC) that carry oxygen around the body. A deficiency in iron may indicate that the body cannot produce enough normal red blood cells (RBC). This is also known as iron deficiency anemia and can lead to fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, dizziness, and headache [27].

Iron deficiency anemia occurs when body stores of iron decrease to very low levels, and the stores are unable to support normal red blood cell (RBC) production. Insufficient dietary iron, impaired iron absorption, bleeding, or loss of body iron in the urine may lead to iron deficiency. The homeostasis of iron normally is regulated carefully by the body to ensure that an adequate supply of iron is absorbed in order to compensate for normal body losses of iron [23]. Iron is found naturally in certain foods and adequate amounts may be obtained through the diet. For individuals who do not receive enough iron from their diet, an iron supplement is necessary. Various conditions can also cause iron deficiency anemia, such as pregnancy or heavy menstrual flow [12].

Taking iron in supplement form, such as ferrous sulfate, allows for more rapid increases in iron levels when dietary supply is not sufficient [8].

Mechanism of action

Provides iron, an essential component in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes [15]. Iron combines with porphyrin and globin chains to form hemoglobin, which is critical for oxygen delivery from the lungs to other tissues [32].

TargetActionsOrganism
UFree radicals
agonist
inducer
Humans
Absorption

Approximately 5 – 10% of dietary iron is absorbed (increased up to 30% in iron deficiency states). Therapeutically ingested oral iron is up to 60% absorbed via active and passive transport processes [16].

The median time to maximum serum concentration (Tmax) occurs 4h post administration. Between 2 and 8 h post administration, average serum iron concentrations fluctuate by only 20%, according to one study [1].

It is advised to consume ferrous sulfate along with ascorbic acid, as this practice has been known to increase its absorption [5]. Reduced absorption with antacids, Zn, Ca, phosphorus, trientine, and cholestyramine has been observed [26].

Volume of distribution

Remains distributed in the body, at various locations for several months. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk [16].

Protein binding

Equal to or greater than 90% [16]. Bound to transferrin [26].

Metabolism

Iron usually exists in the ferrous (Fe2+) or ferric (Fe3+) state, but since Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+, which, in neutral aqueous solutions rapidly hydrolyzes to insoluble iron(III)-hydroxides, iron is transported and stored while bound to plasma proteins. Efficacious binding of iron is imperative not only to ensure that stores are available when required but also due to the fact that Fe2+ may catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress, damaging cellular constituents [24].

Three important proteins regulate the transport and storage of iron. Transferrin transports iron in the plasma and the extracellular fluid compartment [24].

The transferrin receptor, which is expressed by cells that require iron and present in their membranes, binds the transferrin di-iron complex and internalizes this complex into the cell. Ferritin is a protein that stores iron, maintaining it in a readily available state [24].

Approximately 60% of iron is found in the erythrocytes within hemoglobin, the oxygen transport protein. The remainder of the iron is located in myoglobin in the muscles, in a variety of different enzymes (‘heme’ and ‘non-heme’), and in storage form. The majority of stored iron is in the form of ferritin, found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen and, and the muscles [24].

Serum iron (i.e., iron bound to transferrin) represents a very small proportion of total body iron (<0.2%). The relationship between physiological iron compartments is quite dynamic, and the process occurs as follows [24]:

Erythrocytes are broken down both in the liver and in the spleen, and new red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. The total serum iron pool is approximately 4 mg, but the normal daily turnover is no greater than 30, and therefore, minor alterations in serum level due to exogenous iron administration are clinically meaningless. Conventional measurements of serum iron concentrations offer no relevant information about the availability of functional iron for physiological processes and other evaluation strategies must be followed through [24].

Route of elimination

Mostly recycled; small daily losses occurring via desquamation, sweat, urine, and bile [16]. Some iron is lost during menstrual bleeding.

About 1–2 mg of iron is lost every day, through skin and gastrointestinal desquamation and minor blood losses. This loss is balanced by intestinal absorption. Therefore, iron recycling accounts for most of the iron homeostasis in human.

Half life

Minimal; Half-life: 6h [15].

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 319 mg/kg in rat and 680 mg/kg in mouse [MSDS].

Iron is toxic to the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and central nervous system. The exact mechanisms of toxicity are unclear, however, it appears that excess free iron is inserted into enzymatic processes and interferes with the oxidative phosphorylation process, leading to metabolic acidosis. In addition, iron catalyzes free radical formation, and serves as an oxidizer [10].

Toxicity depends on the amount of elemental iron that has been ingested. Up to 20 mg/kg of elemental iron is not toxic, 20 to 60 mg/kg is mildly-moderately toxic, and > 60 mg/kg can cause severe symptoms and morbidity [9].

Gastrointestinal adverse effects are the most commonly reported effects associated with oral iron ingestion, and include nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and black/tarry stools [10].

Early symptoms of overdose include: abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting (may contain blood), and diarrhea. Late symptoms of overdose include bluish lips, fingernails, and palms; drowsiness; weakness; tachycardia; seizures; metabolic acidosis; hepatic injury; and cardiovascular dysfunction. The patient may have the appearance of being recovered before the onset of the later symptoms. Hospitalization should continue for 24 h after the patient becomes asymptomatic to monitor for delayed onset of shock/gastrointestinal bleeding. Later sequelae of iron sulfate overdose include intestinal obstruction, pyloric stenosis, and gastric scarring [16].

When plasma protein binding is saturated, iron combines with water to form iron hydroxide and free H+ ions, compounding the metabolic acidosis. Coagulopathy may appear as an earlier sign of toxicity because of interference with the coagulation cascade and later because of hepatic injury [10].

If the patient is comatose or seizing, gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate should be performed. Deferoxamine is the antidote for iron poisoning. Other supportive treatments to support fluid and electrolyte balance and correct metabolic acidosis are also advised [16].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl DiphosphateFerrous sulfate anhydrous can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Alendronic acidFerrous sulfate anhydrous can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alendronic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlmasilateAlmasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AloglutamolAloglutamol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AluminiumAluminium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium acetoacetateAluminium acetoacetate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium glycinateAluminium glycinate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium phosphateAluminium phosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AsenapineAsenapine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous sulfate anhydrous resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Leary A, Barthe L, Clavel T, Sanchez C, Oulmi-Castel M, Paillard B, Edmond JM, Brunner V: Pharmacokinetics of Ferrous Sulphate (Tardyferon(R)) after Single Oral Dose Administration in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2016 Jan;66(1):51-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549934. Epub 2015 May 19. [PubMed:25989284]
  2. Nayfield SG, Kent TH, Rodman NF: Gastrointestinal effects of acute ferrous sulfate poisoning in rats. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1976 Jun;100(6):325-8. [PubMed:946761]
  3. Zaim M, Piselli L, Fioravanti P, Kanony-Truc C: Efficacy and tolerability of a prolonged release ferrous sulphate formulation in iron deficiency anaemia: a non-inferiority controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Mar;51(2):221-9. doi: 10.1007/s00394-011-0210-7. Epub 2011 Jun 4. [PubMed:21643774]
  4. Davila-Hicks P, Theil EC, Lonnerdal B: Iron in ferritin or in salts (ferrous sulfate) is equally bioavailable in nonanemic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):936-40. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/80.4.936. [PubMed:15447902]
  5. Teucher B, Olivares M, Cori H: Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Nov;74(6):403-19. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.403. [PubMed:15743017]
  6. Conrad ME, Umbreit JN, Moore EG, Hainsworth LN, Porubcin M, Simovich MJ, Nakada MT, Dolan K, Garrick MD: Separate pathways for cellular uptake of ferric and ferrous iron. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Oct;279(4):G767-74. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.2000.279.4.G767. [PubMed:11005764]
  7. FDA CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 - Sec. 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. [Link]
  8. FERROUS SULFATE - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database - Toxnet [Link]
  9. Iron poisoning [Link]
  10. Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation Causes Significant Gastrointestinal Side-Effects in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [Link]
  11. Ferrous Sulphate [Link]
  12. Ferrous Sulphate 200mg Coated Tablets BP [Link]
  13. Comparison Study of Oral Iron Preparations Using a Human Intestinal Model [Link]
  14. Ferrous sulfate, Daily Med [Link]
  15. Ferrous sulfate, epocrates [Link]
  16. Ferrous sulfate DavisPlus [Link]
  17. Physiology of iron metabolism [Link]
  18. Ferrous Sulfate Tablet, Delayed Release (Enteric Coated) [Link]
  19. Epidemiological and nonclinical studies investigating effects of iron in carcinogenesis—A critical review [Link]
  20. Hepcidin, the Iron regulatory hormone [Link]
  21. Memidex-Green vitriol [Link]
  22. Individualized treatment for iron deficiency anemia in adults [Link]
  23. Iron Deficiency Anemia [Link]
  24. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations [Link]
  25. Ferrous Sulfate Liquid [Link]
  26. Ferrous Sulfate MIMS [Link]
  27. Iron deficiency anemia [Link]
  28. Chapter 18 – Iron Transporters and Iron Homeostasis [Link]
  29. Iron [Link]
  30. InChem: Iron [Link]
  31. Ferrous sulfate information [Link]
  32. Antianemia Drugs [Link]
  33. Oral ferrous sulfate supplements increase the free radical-generating capacity of feces from healthy volunteers. [Link]
  34. Effect of oral iron supplementation on oxidative stress and colonic in ̄ammation in rats with induced colitis [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
62662
PubChem Substance
347829289
ChemSpider
22804
ChEBI
75832
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200830
Wikipedia
Iron(II)_sulfate
AHFS Codes
  • 20:04.04 — Iron Preparations
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
MSDS
Download (113 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
2CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)2
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Pregnancy1
4RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia of Pregnancy / Iron Malabsorption1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentIDA in the Post-bariatric Surgical Patient1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionExcessive Amount of Blood / Fluid Transfusion1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
Solution / dropsOral125 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral105 mg
ElixirOral220 mg/5mL
TabletOral
TabletOral325 mg/1
TabletOral65 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral325 mg/1
TabletOral325 mg
TabletOral35 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral35 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral50 mg
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Liquid; tabletOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral300 mg
TabletOral300 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral60 mg
SolutionOral
Solution / dropsOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)57MSDS
boiling point (°C)300MSDS
water solubility48.6 g/100 gMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Transition metal sulfates
Direct Parent
Transition metal sulfates
Alternative Parents
Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Transition metal sulfate / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
metal sulfate, iron molecular entity (CHEBI:75832)

Targets

1. Free radicals
Kind
Group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
Inducer
References
  1. Oral ferrous sulfate supplements increase the free radical-generating capacity of feces from healthy volunteers. [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Component
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS8
Uniprot ID
O00217
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23704.795 Da
References
  1. Ferrous sulfate information [Link]
  2. InChem: Iron [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate ...
Gene Name
SDHA
Uniprot ID
P31040
Uniprot Name
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
72690.975 Da
References
  1. InChem: Iron [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ha...
Gene Name
XDH
Uniprot ID
P47989
Uniprot Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Molecular Weight
146422.99 Da
References
  1. InChem: Iron [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate.
Gene Name
ACO2
Uniprot ID
Q99798
Uniprot Name
Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
85424.745 Da
References
  1. Ferrous sulfate information [Link]
  2. InChem: Iron [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Ferrous sulfate information [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Sulfite oxidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
SUOX
Uniprot ID
P51687
Uniprot Name
Sulfite oxidase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
60282.59 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production o...
Gene Name
MPO
Uniprot ID
P05164
Uniprot Name
Myeloperoxidase
Molecular Weight
83867.71 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia c...
Gene Name
CAT
Uniprot ID
P04040
Uniprot Name
Catalase
Molecular Weight
59755.82 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TPH1
Uniprot ID
P17752
Uniprot Name
Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight
50984.725 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name
P4HA1
Uniprot ID
P13674
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
61048.775 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
Gene Name
RRM1
Uniprot ID
P23921
Uniprot Name
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
Molecular Weight
90069.375 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function
Involved in tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. Seems to both prevent the formation of 7-pterins and accelerate the formation of quinonoid-BH2. Coactivator for HNF1A-dependent transcription. Regulate...
Gene Name
PCBD1
Uniprot ID
P61457
Uniprot Name
Pterin-4-alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase
Molecular Weight
11999.515 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name
TMLHE
Uniprot ID
Q9NVH6
Uniprot Name
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
49517.2 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Transporter
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Storage
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after oxidation. Also plays a ro...
Gene Name
FTL
Uniprot ID
P02792
Uniprot Name
Ferritin light chain
Molecular Weight
20019.49 Da
References
  1. Individualized treatment for iron deficiency anemia in adults [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Storage
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Has ferroxidase activity. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after ...
Gene Name
FTH1
Uniprot ID
P02794
Uniprot Name
Ferritin heavy chain
Molecular Weight
21225.47 Da
References
  1. Individualized treatment for iron deficiency anemia in adults [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pig
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Transporter
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Metal ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
DMT1
Uniprot ID
B2ZDZ3
Uniprot Name
Divalent metal ion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
61450.195 Da
References
  1. Conrad ME, Umbreit JN, Moore EG, Hainsworth LN, Porubcin M, Simovich MJ, Nakada MT, Dolan K, Garrick MD: Separate pathways for cellular uptake of ferric and ferrous iron. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Oct;279(4):G767-74. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.2000.279.4.G767. [PubMed:11005764]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pasteurella haemolytica
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Transporter
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
fbpA
Uniprot ID
Q9Z4N6
Uniprot Name
Iron ABC transporter substrate-binding protein
Molecular Weight
38023.085 Da
References
  1. Differences in the Regulation of Iron Regulatory Protein-1 (IRP-1) by Extra- and Intracellular Oxidative Stress [Link]

Drug created on June 23, 2017 14:38 / Updated on March 25, 2019 07:34