Identification

Name
Chlorprothixene
Accession Number
DB01239  (APRD00718)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental, Investigational, Withdrawn
Description

Chlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene (tricyclic) class. Chlorprothixene exerts strong blocking effects by blocking the 5-HT2 D1, D2, D3, histamine H1, muscarinic and alpha1 adrenergic receptors.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Alpha-Chlorprothixene
  • Chlorprothixen
  • Chlorprothixine
  • Chlorprotixen
  • Chlorprotixene
  • Chlorprotixine
  • Chlothixen
International/Other Brands
Clothixen (Yoshitomi) / Cloxan (Orion) / Taractan (Roche)
Categories
UNII
9S7OD60EWP
CAS number
113-59-7
Weight
Average: 315.86
Monoisotopic: 315.084847978
Chemical Formula
C18H18ClNS
InChI Key
WSPOMRSOLSGNFJ-VGOFMYFVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H18ClNS/c1-20(2)11-5-7-14-15-6-3-4-8-17(15)21-18-10-9-13(19)12-16(14)18/h3-4,6-10,12H,5,11H2,1-2H3/b14-7+
IUPAC Name
[3-(2-chloro-9H-thioxanthen-9-ylidene)propyl]dimethylamine
SMILES
[H]C(CCN(C)C)=C1C2=CC(Cl)=CC=C2SC2=C1C=CC=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment of psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia) and of acute mania occuring as part of bipolar disorders.

Pharmacodynamics

Chlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthine class. It has a low antipsychotic potency (half to 2/3 of chlorpromazine). An intrinsic antidepressant effect of chlorprothixene has been discussed, but not proven yet. Likewise, it is unclear, if chlorprothixene has genuine analgesic effects. An antiemetic effect, as with most antipsychotics, exists. It is used in the treatment of nervous, mental, and emotional conditions. Improvement in such conditions is thought to result from the effect of the medicine on nerve pathways in specific areas of the brain. Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a high incidence of anticholinergic side-effects. Chlorprothixene is structurally related to chlorpromazine, with which it shares in principal all side effects. Allergic side-effects and liver damage seem to appear with an appreciable lower frequency.

Mechanism of action

Chlorprothixene blocks postsynaptic mesolimbic dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the brain; depresses the release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones and is believed to depress the reticular activating system thus affecting basal metabolism, body temperature, wakefulness, vasomotor tone, and emesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(2) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
AD(1A) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
antagonist
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Human
NMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
NMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
NMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
NMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Human
NMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Incomplete bioavailability.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

8 to 12 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include difficulty in breathing (severe), dizziness (severe), drowsiness (severe), muscle trembling, jerking, stiffness, or uncontrolled movements (severe), small pupils, unusual excitement, and unusual tiredness or weakness (severe).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorprothixene can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Chlorprothixene.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Chlorprothixene.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Chlorprothixene.
3,5-DinitrocatecholThe therapeutic efficacy of 3,5-Dinitrocatechol can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorprothixene.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Chlorprothixene.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Sprague, J.M. and Engelhardt, E.L.; US. Patent 2,951,082; August 30, 1960; assigned to Merck & Co., Inc. Schlapfer, R. and Spiegelberg, H.; US. Patent 3,115,502; December 24,1963; assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche Inc.

US3046283
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00790
KEGG Compound
C07953
PubChem Compound
667466
PubChem Substance
46508957
ChemSpider
580848
BindingDB
50130257
ChEBI
50932
ChEMBL
CHEMBL90125
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000833
PharmGKB
PA164781400
Wikipedia
Chlorprothixene
ATC Codes
N05AF03 — Chlorprothixene
MSDS
Download (63.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)153-154Sprague, J.M. and Engelhardt, E.L.; US. Patent 2,951,082; August 30, 1960; assigned to Merck & Co., Inc. Schlapfer, R. and Spiegelberg, H.; US. Patent 3,115,502; December 24,1963; assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche Inc.
water solubility0.295 mg/LNot Available
logP5.18HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000366 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.42ALOGPS
logP5.07ChemAxon
logS-5.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3.24 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity104.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.85 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9899
Blood Brain Barrier+0.95
Caco-2 permeable+0.7404
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8042
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8407
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8884
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.72
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7199
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.6845
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7096
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.768
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7084
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8714
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9838
Rat acute toxicity3.1665 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8117
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7373
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.22 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thioxanthenes. These are organic polycyclic compounds containing a thioxanthene moiety, which is an aromatic tricycle derived from xanthene by replacing the oxygen atom with a sulfur atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiopyrans
Sub Class
1-benzothiopyrans
Direct Parent
Thioxanthenes
Alternative Parents
Diarylthioethers / Benzenoids / Aryl chlorides / Trialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Thioxanthene / Diarylthioether / Aryl thioether / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Benzenoid / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Thioether / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amine, thioxanthenes (CHEBI:3651)

Targets

Details
1. D(2) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Froimowitz M, Cody V: Biologically active conformers of phenothiazines and thioxanthenes. Further evidence for a ligand model of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. J Med Chem. 1993 Jul 23;36(15):2219-27. [PubMed:8101879]
  2. Fux M, Belmaker RH: A controlled comparative study of chlorprothixene vs. haloperidol in chronic schizophrenia. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1991;28(1):37-40. [PubMed:1830565]
  3. von Coburg Y, Kottke T, Weizel L, Ligneau X, Stark H: Potential utility of histamine H3 receptor antagonist pharmacophore in antipsychotics. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jan 15;19(2):538-42. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.09.012. Epub 2008 Sep 7. [PubMed:19091563]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. D(1A) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fux M, Belmaker RH: A controlled comparative study of chlorprothixene vs. haloperidol in chronic schizophrenia. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1991;28(1):37-40. [PubMed:1830565]
Details
3. D(3) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fux M, Belmaker RH: A controlled comparative study of chlorprothixene vs. haloperidol in chronic schizophrenia. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1991;28(1):37-40. [PubMed:1830565]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Antkiewicz-Michaluk L: The influence of chronic treatment with antidepressant neuroleptics on the central serotonin system. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 1986 Jul-Aug;38(4):359-70. [PubMed:3774629]
  2. Wander TJ, Nelson A, Okazaki H, Richelson E: Antagonism by neuroleptics of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors of normal human brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1987 Nov 10;143(2):279-82. [PubMed:2891550]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation...
Gene Name
HTR2B
Uniprot ID
P41595
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Molecular Weight
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Details
7. Histamine H1 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 04:58