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Identification
NameL-Carnitine
Accession NumberDB00583  (APRD01070)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Constituent of striated muscle and liver. It is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(-)-CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
(-)-L-CarnitinNot AvailableNot Available
(-)-L-CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminiumNot AvailableNot Available
3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium hydroxide, inner saltNot AvailableNot Available
CarnicorNot AvailableNot Available
CarniteneNot AvailableNot Available
CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
CarnitorNot AvailableNot Available
KarnitinNot AvailableNot Available
L-CarnitineNot AvailableNot Available
LevocarnitinGermanINN
LevocarnitinaSpanishINN
LévocarnitineFrenchINN
LevocarnitinumLatinINN
Vitamin btNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Levocarnitinetablet330 mgoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2005-11-01Not AvailableUs
Carnitortablet330 mgoralSigma Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1985-12-27Not AvailableUs
Carnitorsolution1 g/10mLoralSigma Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-04-10Not AvailableUs
Carnitorinjection, solution1 g/5mLintravenousSigma Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-12-16Not AvailableUs
Carnitor Sfsolution1 g/10mLoralSigma Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-04-10Not AvailableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Levocarnitineinjection, solution200 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.2001-10-08Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitineinjection1 g/5mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2001-06-01Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitineinjection2.5 g/12.5mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2001-06-01Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitinesolution1 g/10mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2007-10-25Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitinesolution1 g/10mLoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-10-08Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitinesolution1 g/10mLoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-11-29Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitineinjection1 g/5mLintravenousBedford Laboratories2001-04-232015-03-31Us
Levocarnitinetablet330 mgoralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2004-09-20Not AvailableUs
Levocarnitinesolution1 g/10mLoralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2004-09-20Not AvailableUs
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlbicarCasasco
AveptolLeovan Pharmaceuticals
BiocarnMedice
BitobionilS.J.A.
CardimaxIntegrated
CardispanGrossman
CarnibenBennett Pharmaceuticals
CarnicorSigma Tau
LecarnaBennett Pharmaceuticals
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Car-QLevocarnitine and Ubidecarenone
CarnonLevocarnitine and Ubidecarenone
Evion-LCLevocarnitine and Tocopherol, α-
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
L-Carnitin Hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001037
Categories
CAS number541-15-1
WeightAverage: 161.1989
Monoisotopic: 161.105193351
Chemical FormulaC7H15NO3
InChI KeyPHIQHXFUZVPYII-ZCFIWIBFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C7H15NO3/c1-8(2,3)5-6(9)4-7(10)11/h6,9H,4-5H2,1-3H3/t6-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)C[C@H](O)CC([O-])=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Carnitine
  • Choline
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency, a genetic impairment of normal biosynthesis or utilization of levocarnitine from dietary sources, or for the treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency resulting from an inborn error of metabolism such as glutaric aciduria II, methyl malonic aciduria, propionic acidemia, and medium chain fatty acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Parenteral levocarnitine is indicated for the prevention and treatment of carnitine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease.
PharmacodynamicsLevocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Lack of carnitine can lead to liver, heart, and muscle problems. Carnitine deficiency is defined biochemically as abnormally low plasma concentrations of free carnitine, less than 20 µmol/L at one week post term and may be associated with low tissue and/or urine concentrations. Further, this condition may be associated with a plasma concentration ratio of acylcarnitine/levocarnitine greater than 0.4 or abnormally elevated concentrations of acylcarnitine in the urine. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. The "vitamin BT" form actually contains D,L-carnitine, which competitively inhibits levocarnitine and can cause deficiency. Levocarnitine can be used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Mechanism of actionLevocarnitine can be synthesised within the body from the amino acids lysine or methionine. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is essential to the synthesis of carnitine. Levocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. Levocarnitine is handled by several proteins in different pathways including carnitine transporters, carnitine translocases, carnitine acetyltransferases and carnitine palmitoyltransferases.
AbsorptionAbsolute bioavailability is 15% (tablets or solution). Time to maximum plasma concentration was found to be 3.3 hours.
Volume of distribution

The steady state volume of distribution (Vss) of an intravenously administered dose, above endogenous baseline levels, was calculated to be 29.0 +/- 7.1L. However this value is predicted to be an underestimate of the true Vss.

Protein bindingNone
Metabolism

After oral administration L-carnitine which is unabsorbed is metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by bacterial microflora. Major metabolites include trimethylamine N-oxide and [3H]-gamma-butyrobetaine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
L-Carnitine
Not Available
Trimethylamine N-oxideDetails
L-Carnitine
Not Available
[3H]-gamma-ButyrobetaineDetails
Route of eliminationFollowing a single intravenous dose, 73.1 +/- 16% of the dose was excreted in the urine during the 0-24 hour interval. Post administration of oral carnitine supplements, in addition to a high carnitine diet, 58-65% of the administered radioactive dose was recovered from urine and feces in 5-11 days.
Half life17.4 hours (elimination) following a single intravenous dose.
Clearance

Total body clearance was found to be a mean of 4L/h.

ToxicityLD50 > 8g/kg (mouse, oral). Adverse effects include hypertension, fever, tachycardia and seizures.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linkedDiseaseSMP00516
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00517
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00052
Ethylmalonic EncephalopathyDiseaseSMP00181
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)DiseaseSMP00541
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00235
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)DiseaseSMP00538
Trifunctional protein deficiencyDiseaseSMP00545
Glutaric Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00185
Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)DiseaseSMP00542
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00482
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)DiseaseSMP00539
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Fatty acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00051
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)DiseaseSMP00540
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9409
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8568
Caco-2 permeable+0.5952
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6583
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9784
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8966
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9161
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8372
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.845
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5297
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9361
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.951
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9382
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9348
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9874
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8832
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6127
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9234
Rat acute toxicity2.1624 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9731
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.914
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sigma tau pharmaceuticals inc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Lyne laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintravenous1 g/5mL
Injectionintravenous2.5 g/12.5mL
Injection, solutionintravenous1 g/5mL
Injection, solutionintravenous200 mg/mL
Solutionoral1 g/10mL
Tabletoral330 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Carnitor 90 330 mg tablet Bottle90.44USD bottle
Carnitor 1 gm/10ml Solution 118ml Bottle39.99USD bottle
Carnitor 1 gm/5 ml vial7.68USD ml
L-carnitine powder4.28USD g
Carnitor 330 mg tablet0.97USD tablet
L-carnitine 500 mg caplet0.31USD caplet
G-levocarnitine 100 mg/ml soln0.15USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States63353692001-01-182021-01-18
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point195-198Noguchi, J. and Sakota, N.; US. Patent 3,135,788; June 2,1964; assigned to Nihon Zoki Seiyaku Kabushikikaisha (Japan).
water solubility2500 mg/mLNot Available
pKa3.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.33 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.9ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity63.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Noguchi, J. and Sakota, N.; US. Patent 3,135,788; June 2,1964; assigned to Nihon Zoki Seiyaku Kabushikikaisha (Japan).

US4413142
General Reference
  1. Olpin SE: Fatty acid oxidation defects as a cause of neuromyopathic disease in infants and adults. Clin Lab. 2005;51(5-6):289-306. Pubmed
  2. Steiber A, Kerner J, Hoppel CL: Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective. Mol Aspects Med. 2004 Oct-Dec;25(5-6):455-73. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 40:20.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsSearched, but no interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, liver isoform

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, liver isoform P50416 Details

References:

  1. Xu ZR, Wang MQ, Mao HX, Zhan XA, Hu CH: Effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, carcass composition, and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. Poult Sci. 2003 Mar;82(3):408-13. Pubmed
  2. Morillas M, Lopez-VVinas E, Valencia A, Serra D, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G: Structural model of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I based on the carnitine acetyltransferase crystal. Biochem J. 2004 May 1;379(Pt 3):777-84. Pubmed
  3. Tripodi G, Modica R, Stella A, Bigatti G, Bianchi G, Stella P: Haplotype analysis of carnitine transporters and left ventricular mass in human essential hypertension. J Ren Nutr. 2005 Jan;15(1):2-7. Pubmed
  4. Waldner R, Laschan C, Lohninger A, Gessner M, Tuchler H, Huemer M, Spiegel W, Karlic H: Effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy and a combination with L-carnitine on oxidative metabolism in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006 Feb;132(2):121-8. Epub 2005 Nov 8. Pubmed
  5. Shin ES, Cho SY, Lee EH, Lee SJ, Chang IS, Lee TR: Positive regulation of hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) activities by soy isoflavones and L-carnitine. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(3):159-64. Epub 2005 Dec 20. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 4 Q9H015 Details

References:

  1. Kristufek D, Rudorfer W, Pifl C, Huck S: Organic cation transporter mRNA and function in the rat superior cervical ganglion. J Physiol. 2002 Aug 15;543(Pt 1):117-34. Pubmed
  2. Amat di San Filippo C, Wang Y, Longo N: Functional domains in the carnitine transporter OCTN2, defective in primary carnitine deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28;278(48):47776-84. Epub 2003 Sep 23. Pubmed
  3. Lamhonwah AM, Ackerley C, Onizuka R, Tilups A, Lamhonwah D, Chung C, Tao KS, Tellier R, Tein I: Epitope shared by functional variant of organic cation/carnitine transporter, OCTN1, Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis may underlie susceptibility to Crohn’s disease at 5q31. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 2;337(4):1165-75. Epub 2005 Oct 6. Pubmed
  4. Lash LH, Putt DA, Cai H: Membrane transport function in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Toxicology. 2006 Dec 7;228(2-3):200-18. Epub 2006 Sep 1. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Lahjouji K, Elimrani I, Wu J, Mitchell GA, Qureshi IA: A heterozygote phenotype is present in the jvs +/- mutant mouse livers. Mol Genet Metab. 2002 May;76(1):76-80. Pubmed
  2. Kristufek D, Rudorfer W, Pifl C, Huck S: Organic cation transporter mRNA and function in the rat superior cervical ganglion. J Physiol. 2002 Aug 15;543(Pt 1):117-34. Pubmed
  3. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Inano A, Katsura M, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Studies on functional sites of organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) using a Ser467Cys mutant protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Sep;302(3):1286-94. Pubmed
  4. Hou JW: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency presenting as recurrent Reye-like syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. Chang Gung Med J. 2002 Dec;25(12):832-7. Pubmed
  5. Friedrich A, Prasad PD, Freyer D, Ganapathy V, Brust P: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the OCTN2 transporter at the RBE4 cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2003 Apr 4;968(1):69-79. Pubmed

4. Carnitine O-acetyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carnitine O-acetyltransferase P43155 Details

References:

  1. Jogl G, Tong L: Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport. Cell. 2003 Jan 10;112(1):113-22. Pubmed
  2. Wu D, Govindasamy L, Lian W, Gu Y, Kukar T, Agbandje-McKenna M, McKenna R: Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 11;278(15):13159-65. Epub 2003 Jan 31. Pubmed
  3. Vikramadithyan RK, Hiriyan J, Suresh J, Gershome C, Babu RK, Misra P, Rajagopalan R, Chakrabarti R: DRF 2655: a unique molecule that reduces body weight and ameliorates metabolic abnormalities. Obes Res. 2003 Feb;11(2):292-303. Pubmed
  4. Govindasamy L, Kukar T, Lian W, Pedersen B, Gu Y, Agbandje-McKenna M, Jin S, McKenna R, Wu D: Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. J Struct Biol. 2004 Jun;146(3):416-24. Pubmed
  5. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G, Serra D: Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33899-908. Epub 2004 May 21. Pubmed

5. Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein CACL

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein CACL Q8N8R3 Details

References:

  1. Sekoguchi E, Sato N, Yasui A, Fukada S, Nimura Y, Aburatani H, Ikeda K, Matsuura A: A novel mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase induced by partial hepatectomy and fasting. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 3;278(40):38796-802. Epub 2003 Jul 25. Pubmed

6. Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein O43772 Details

References:

  1. Sekoguchi E, Sato N, Yasui A, Fukada S, Nimura Y, Aburatani H, Ikeda K, Matsuura A: A novel mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase induced by partial hepatectomy and fasting. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 3;278(40):38796-802. Epub 2003 Jul 25. Pubmed
  2. Peluso G, Petillo O, Margarucci S, Grippo P, Melone MA, Tuccillo F, Calvani M: Differential carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase expression defines distinct metabolic signatures in skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005 May;203(2):439-46. Pubmed
  3. Tonazzi A, Giangregorio N, Indiveri C, Palmieri F: Identification by site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification of three vicinal cysteine residues in rat mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 20;280(20):19607-12. Epub 2005 Mar 9. Pubmed

7. Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase Q9UKG9 Details

References:

  1. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G, Serra D: Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33899-908. Epub 2004 May 21. Pubmed
  2. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Gomez-Puertas P, Asins G, Serra D, Hegardt FG: Mutagenesis of specific amino acids converts carnitine acetyltransferase into carnitine palmitoyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6133-41. Pubmed

8. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrial P23786 Details

References:

  1. Barrero MJ, Camarero N, Marrero PF, Haro D: Control of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase II gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor through a partially conserved peroxisome proliferator-responsive element. Biochem J. 2003 Feb 1;369(Pt 3):721-9. Pubmed
  2. Kong JY, Rabkin SW: Lovastatin does not accentuate but is rather additive to palmitate-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Nov;67(5):293-302. Pubmed
  3. Rasmussen BB, Holmback UC, Volpi E, Morio-Liondore B, Paddon-Jones D, Wolfe RR: Malonyl coenzyme A and the regulation of functional carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 2002 Dec;110(11):1687-93. Pubmed
  4. Price NT, Jackson VN, van der Leij FR, Cameron JM, Travers MT, Bartelds B, Huijkman NC, Zammit VA: Cloning and expression of the liver and muscle isoforms of ovine carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1: residues within the N-terminus of the muscle isoform influence the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Biochem J. 2003 Jun 15;372(Pt 3):871-9. Pubmed
  5. Lehtihet M, Welsh N, Berggren PO, Cook GA, Sjoholm A: Glibenclamide inhibits islet carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activity, leading to PKC-dependent insulin exocytosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;285(2):E438-46. Epub 2003 Apr 8. Pubmed

9. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase P47989 Details

References:

  1. Di Giacomo C, Latteri F, Fichera C, Sorrenti V, Campisi A, Castorina C, Russo A, Pinturo R, Vanella A: Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in rat skeletal muscle. Neurochem Res. 1993 Nov;18(11):1157-62. Pubmed

10. Liver carboxylesterase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Liver carboxylesterase 1 P23141 Details

References:

  1. Bell FP: Carnitine ester hydrolysis in arteries from normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits and the effects of carnitine esters on arterial microsomal ACAT. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984;79(2):125-8. Pubmed

11. Myeloperoxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Myeloperoxidase P05164 Details

References:

  1. Derin N, Agac A, Bayram Z, Asar M, Izgut-Uysal VN: Effects of L-carnitine on neutrophil-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat stomach. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006 Sep-Oct;24(5):437-42. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 4 Q9H015 Details

References:

  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. Pubmed
  2. Tamai I, Ohashi R, Nezu JI, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and functional characterization of organic cation/carnitine transporter family in mice. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40064-72. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Tamai I, China K, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Nezu J, Kawahara E, Tsuji A: Na(+)-coupled transport of L-carnitine via high-affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 and its subcellular localization in kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jun 6;1512(2):273-84. Pubmed
  2. Friedrich A, Prasad PD, Freyer D, Ganapathy V, Brust P: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the OCTN2 transporter at the RBE4 cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2003 Apr 4;968(1):69-79. Pubmed
  3. Elimrani I, Lahjouji K, Seidman E, Roy MJ, Mitchell GA, Qureshi I: Expression and localization of organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 May;284(5):G863-71. Epub 2003 Jan 10. Pubmed
  4. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. Pubmed
  5. Tamai I, Ohashi R, Nezu JI, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and functional characterization of organic cation/carnitine transporter family in mice. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40064-72. Pubmed
  6. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier family 22 member 16

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 16 Q86VW1 Details

References:

  1. Enomoto A, Wempe MF, Tsuchida H, Shin HJ, Cha SH, Anzai N, Goto A, Sakamoto A, Niwa T, Kanai Y, Anders MW, Endou H: Molecular identification of a novel carnitine transporter specific to human testis. Insights into the mechanism of carnitine recognition. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27;277(39):36262-71. Epub 2002 Jun 27. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

References:

  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 02, 2014 14:33