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Identification
NameL-Carnitine
Accession NumberDB00583  (APRD01070)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionConstituent of striated muscle and liver. It is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Carnitine
(-)-L-Carnitin
(-)-L-Carnitine
(R)-Carnitine
(S)-Carnitine
3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium
3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium hydroxide, inner salt
Carnicor
Carnitene
Carnitine
Carnitor
Karnitin
L-Carnitine
Levocarnitin
Levocarnitina
Lévocarnitine
Levocarnitinum
Vitamin bt
External Identifiers
  • ST 261
  • UNII-0G389FZZ9M
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlbicarCasasco
AveptolLeovan Pharmaceuticals
BiocarnMedice
BitobionilS.J.A.
CardimaxIntegrated
CardispanGrossman
CarnibenBennett Pharmaceuticals
CarnicorSigma Tau
LecarnaBennett Pharmaceuticals
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
L-Carnitin Hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001037
Categories
UNII0G389FZZ9M
CAS number541-15-1
WeightAverage: 161.1989
Monoisotopic: 161.105193351
Chemical FormulaC7H15NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHIQHXFUZVPYII-ZCFIWIBFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C7H15NO3/c1-8(2,3)5-6(9)4-7(10)11/h6,9H,4-5H2,1-3H3/t6-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)C[[email protected]](O)CC([O-])=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Carnitine
  • Choline
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency, a genetic impairment of normal biosynthesis or utilization of levocarnitine from dietary sources, or for the treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency resulting from an inborn error of metabolism such as glutaric aciduria II, methyl malonic aciduria, propionic acidemia, and medium chain fatty acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Parenteral levocarnitine is indicated for the prevention and treatment of carnitine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease.
PharmacodynamicsLevocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Lack of carnitine can lead to liver, heart, and muscle problems. Carnitine deficiency is defined biochemically as abnormally low plasma concentrations of free carnitine, less than 20 µmol/L at one week post term and may be associated with low tissue and/or urine concentrations. Further, this condition may be associated with a plasma concentration ratio of acylcarnitine/levocarnitine greater than 0.4 or abnormally elevated concentrations of acylcarnitine in the urine. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. The "vitamin BT" form actually contains D,L-carnitine, which competitively inhibits levocarnitine and can cause deficiency. Levocarnitine can be used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Mechanism of actionLevocarnitine can be synthesised within the body from the amino acids lysine or methionine. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is essential to the synthesis of carnitine. Levocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. Levocarnitine is handled by several proteins in different pathways including carnitine transporters, carnitine translocases, carnitine acetyltransferases and carnitine palmitoyltransferases.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsolute bioavailability is 15% (tablets or solution). Time to maximum plasma concentration was found to be 3.3 hours.
Volume of distribution

The steady state volume of distribution (Vss) of an intravenously administered dose, above endogenous baseline levels, was calculated to be 29.0 +/- 7.1L. However this value is predicted to be an underestimate of the true Vss.

Protein bindingNone
Metabolism

After oral administration L-carnitine which is unabsorbed is metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by bacterial microflora. Major metabolites include trimethylamine N-oxide and [3H]-gamma-butyrobetaine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
L-Carnitine
Not Available
Trimethylamine N-oxideDetails
L-Carnitine
Not Available
[3H]-gamma-ButyrobetaineDetails
Route of eliminationFollowing a single intravenous dose, 73.1 +/- 16% of the dose was excreted in the urine during the 0-24 hour interval. Post administration of oral carnitine supplements, in addition to a high carnitine diet, 58-65% of the administered radioactive dose was recovered from urine and feces in 5-11 days.
Half life17.4 hours (elimination) following a single intravenous dose.
Clearance

Total body clearance was found to be a mean of 4L/h.

ToxicityLD50 > 8g/kg (mouse, oral). Adverse effects include hypertension, fever, tachycardia and seizures.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Trifunctional protein deficiencyDiseaseSMP00545
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00517
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)DiseaseSMP00539
Glutaric Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00185
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)DiseaseSMP00540
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
Fatty acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00051
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00052
Ethylmalonic EncephalopathyDiseaseSMP00181
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)DiseaseSMP00541
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00235
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00482
Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linkedDiseaseSMP00516
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)DiseaseSMP00538
Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)DiseaseSMP00542
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9409
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8568
Caco-2 permeable+0.5952
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6583
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9784
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8966
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9161
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8372
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.845
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5297
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9361
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.951
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9382
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9348
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9874
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8832
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6127
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9234
Rat acute toxicity2.1624 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9731
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.914
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sigma tau pharmaceuticals inc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Lyne laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Carnitor 90 330 mg tablet Bottle90.44USD bottle
Carnitor 1 gm/10ml Solution 118ml Bottle39.99USD bottle
Carnitor 1 gm/5 ml vial7.68USD ml
L-carnitine powder4.28USD g
Carnitor 330 mg tablet0.97USD tablet
L-carnitine 500 mg caplet0.31USD caplet
G-levocarnitine 100 mg/ml soln0.15USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6335369 No2001-01-182021-01-18Us
US6429230 No2001-01-182021-01-18Us
US6696493 No2001-01-182021-01-18Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point195-198Noguchi, J. and Sakota, N.; US. Patent 3,135,788; June 2,1964; assigned to Nihon Zoki Seiyaku Kabushikikaisha (Japan).
water solubility2500 mg/mLNot Available
pKa3.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.33 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.9ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity63.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Noguchi, J. and Sakota, N.; US. Patent 3,135,788; June 2,1964; assigned to Nihon Zoki Seiyaku Kabushikikaisha (Japan).

US4413142
General References
  1. Olpin SE: Fatty acid oxidation defects as a cause of neuromyopathic disease in infants and adults. Clin Lab. 2005;51(5-6):289-306. [PubMed:15991803 ]
  2. Steiber A, Kerner J, Hoppel CL: Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective. Mol Aspects Med. 2004 Oct-Dec;25(5-6):455-73. [PubMed:15363636 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA16AA01
AHFS Codes
  • 40:20.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
DicoumarolL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
Ethyl biscoumacetateL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
PhenindioneL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
WarfarinL-Carnitine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Carnitine o-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group of long-chain fatty acid-CoA conjugates onto carnitine, an essential step for the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent beta-oxidation in the mitochondrion. Plays an important role in triglyceride metabolism.
Gene Name:
CPT1A
Uniprot ID:
P50416
Molecular Weight:
88366.92 Da
References
  1. Xu ZR, Wang MQ, Mao HX, Zhan XA, Hu CH: Effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, carcass composition, and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. Poult Sci. 2003 Mar;82(3):408-13. [PubMed:12705401 ]
  2. Morillas M, Lopez-Vinas E, Valencia A, Serra D, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G: Structural model of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I based on the carnitine acetyltransferase crystal. Biochem J. 2004 May 1;379(Pt 3):777-84. [PubMed:14711372 ]
  3. Tripodi G, Modica R, Stella A, Bigatti G, Bianchi G, Stella P: Haplotype analysis of carnitine transporters and left ventricular mass in human essential hypertension. J Ren Nutr. 2005 Jan;15(1):2-7. [PubMed:15647998 ]
  4. Waldner R, Laschan C, Lohninger A, Gessner M, Tuchler H, Huemer M, Spiegel W, Karlic H: Effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy and a combination with L-carnitine on oxidative metabolism in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006 Feb;132(2):121-8. Epub 2005 Nov 8. [PubMed:16283381 ]
  5. Shin ES, Cho SY, Lee EH, Lee SJ, Chang IS, Lee TR: Positive regulation of hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) activities by soy isoflavones and L-carnitine. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(3):159-64. Epub 2005 Dec 20. [PubMed:16362726 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Kristufek D, Rudorfer W, Pifl C, Huck S: Organic cation transporter mRNA and function in the rat superior cervical ganglion. J Physiol. 2002 Aug 15;543(Pt 1):117-34. [PubMed:12181285 ]
  2. Amat di San Filippo C, Wang Y, Longo N: Functional domains in the carnitine transporter OCTN2, defective in primary carnitine deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28;278(48):47776-84. Epub 2003 Sep 23. [PubMed:14506273 ]
  3. Lamhonwah AM, Ackerley C, Onizuka R, Tilups A, Lamhonwah D, Chung C, Tao KS, Tellier R, Tein I: Epitope shared by functional variant of organic cation/carnitine transporter, OCTN1, Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis may underlie susceptibility to Crohn's disease at 5q31. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 2;337(4):1165-75. Epub 2005 Oct 6. [PubMed:16246312 ]
  4. Lash LH, Putt DA, Cai H: Membrane transport function in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Toxicology. 2006 Dec 7;228(2-3):200-18. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16997449 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Lahjouji K, Elimrani I, Wu J, Mitchell GA, Qureshi IA: A heterozygote phenotype is present in the jvs +/- mutant mouse livers. Mol Genet Metab. 2002 May;76(1):76-80. [PubMed:12175785 ]
  2. Kristufek D, Rudorfer W, Pifl C, Huck S: Organic cation transporter mRNA and function in the rat superior cervical ganglion. J Physiol. 2002 Aug 15;543(Pt 1):117-34. [PubMed:12181285 ]
  3. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Inano A, Katsura M, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Studies on functional sites of organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) using a Ser467Cys mutant protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Sep;302(3):1286-94. [PubMed:12183691 ]
  4. Hou JW: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency presenting as recurrent Reye-like syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. Chang Gung Med J. 2002 Dec;25(12):832-7. [PubMed:12635840 ]
  5. Friedrich A, Prasad PD, Freyer D, Ganapathy V, Brust P: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the OCTN2 transporter at the RBE4 cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2003 Apr 4;968(1):69-79. [PubMed:12644265 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.
Gene Name:
CRAT
Uniprot ID:
P43155
Molecular Weight:
70857.055 Da
References
  1. Jogl G, Tong L: Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport. Cell. 2003 Jan 10;112(1):113-22. [PubMed:12526798 ]
  2. Wu D, Govindasamy L, Lian W, Gu Y, Kukar T, Agbandje-McKenna M, McKenna R: Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 11;278(15):13159-65. Epub 2003 Jan 31. [PubMed:12562770 ]
  3. Vikramadithyan RK, Hiriyan J, Suresh J, Gershome C, Babu RK, Misra P, Rajagopalan R, Chakrabarti R: DRF 2655: a unique molecule that reduces body weight and ameliorates metabolic abnormalities. Obes Res. 2003 Feb;11(2):292-303. [PubMed:12582227 ]
  4. Govindasamy L, Kukar T, Lian W, Pedersen B, Gu Y, Agbandje-McKenna M, Jin S, McKenna R, Wu D: Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. J Struct Biol. 2004 Jun;146(3):416-24. [PubMed:15099582 ]
  5. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G, Serra D: Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33899-908. Epub 2004 May 21. [PubMed:15155769 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Acyl carnitine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Does not transport carnitine nor acylcarnitines. Functions by both counter-exchange and uniport mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SLC25A29
Uniprot ID:
Q8N8R3
Molecular Weight:
32061.87 Da
References
  1. Sekoguchi E, Sato N, Yasui A, Fukada S, Nimura Y, Aburatani H, Ikeda K, Matsuura A: A novel mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase induced by partial hepatectomy and fasting. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 3;278(40):38796-802. Epub 2003 Jul 25. [PubMed:12882971 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Mediates the transport of acylcarnitines of different length across the mitochondrial inner membrane from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway.
Gene Name:
SLC25A20
Uniprot ID:
O43772
Molecular Weight:
32943.46 Da
References
  1. Sekoguchi E, Sato N, Yasui A, Fukada S, Nimura Y, Aburatani H, Ikeda K, Matsuura A: A novel mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase induced by partial hepatectomy and fasting. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 3;278(40):38796-802. Epub 2003 Jul 25. [PubMed:12882971 ]
  2. Peluso G, Petillo O, Margarucci S, Grippo P, Melone MA, Tuccillo F, Calvani M: Differential carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase expression defines distinct metabolic signatures in skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005 May;203(2):439-46. [PubMed:15515015 ]
  3. Tonazzi A, Giangregorio N, Indiveri C, Palmieri F: Identification by site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification of three vicinal cysteine residues in rat mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 20;280(20):19607-12. Epub 2005 Mar 9. [PubMed:15757911 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
Gene Name:
CROT
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKG9
Molecular Weight:
70177.935 Da
References
  1. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS, Gomez-Puertas P, Hegardt FG, Asins G, Serra D: Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33899-908. Epub 2004 May 21. [PubMed:15155769 ]
  2. Cordente AG, Lopez-Vinas E, Vazquez MI, Gomez-Puertas P, Asins G, Serra D, Hegardt FG: Mutagenesis of specific amino acids converts carnitine acetyltransferase into carnitine palmitoyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6133-41. [PubMed:16681386 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Carnitine o-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular Weight:
73776.335 Da
References
  1. Barrero MJ, Camarero N, Marrero PF, Haro D: Control of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase II gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor through a partially conserved peroxisome proliferator-responsive element. Biochem J. 2003 Feb 1;369(Pt 3):721-9. [PubMed:12408750 ]
  2. Kong JY, Rabkin SW: Lovastatin does not accentuate but is rather additive to palmitate-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Nov;67(5):293-302. [PubMed:12445488 ]
  3. Rasmussen BB, Holmback UC, Volpi E, Morio-Liondore B, Paddon-Jones D, Wolfe RR: Malonyl coenzyme A and the regulation of functional carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 2002 Dec;110(11):1687-93. [PubMed:12464674 ]
  4. Price NT, Jackson VN, van der Leij FR, Cameron JM, Travers MT, Bartelds B, Huijkman NC, Zammit VA: Cloning and expression of the liver and muscle isoforms of ovine carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1: residues within the N-terminus of the muscle isoform influence the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Biochem J. 2003 Jun 15;372(Pt 3):871-9. [PubMed:12662154 ]
  5. Lehtihet M, Welsh N, Berggren PO, Cook GA, Sjoholm A: Glibenclamide inhibits islet carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activity, leading to PKC-dependent insulin exocytosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;285(2):E438-46. Epub 2003 Apr 8. [PubMed:12684219 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Di Giacomo C, Latteri F, Fichera C, Sorrenti V, Campisi A, Castorina C, Russo A, Pinturo R, Vanella A: Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in rat skeletal muscle. Neurochem Res. 1993 Nov;18(11):1157-62. [PubMed:8255367 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity,...
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular Weight:
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Bell FP: Carnitine ester hydrolysis in arteries from normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits and the effects of carnitine esters on arterial microsomal ACAT. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984;79(2):125-8. [PubMed:6509906 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular Weight:
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Derin N, Agac A, Bayram Z, Asar M, Izgut-Uysal VN: Effects of L-carnitine on neutrophil-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat stomach. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006 Sep-Oct;24(5):437-42. [PubMed:16130180 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
  2. Tamai I, Ohashi R, Nezu JI, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and functional characterization of organic cation/carnitine transporter family in mice. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40064-72. [PubMed:11010964 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. [PubMed:12906759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, China K, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Nezu J, Kawahara E, Tsuji A: Na(+)-coupled transport of L-carnitine via high-affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 and its subcellular localization in kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jun 6;1512(2):273-84. [PubMed:11406104 ]
  2. Friedrich A, Prasad PD, Freyer D, Ganapathy V, Brust P: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the OCTN2 transporter at the RBE4 cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2003 Apr 4;968(1):69-79. [PubMed:12644265 ]
  3. Elimrani I, Lahjouji K, Seidman E, Roy MJ, Mitchell GA, Qureshi I: Expression and localization of organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 May;284(5):G863-71. Epub 2003 Jan 10. [PubMed:12684216 ]
  4. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
  5. Tamai I, Ohashi R, Nezu JI, Sai Y, Kobayashi D, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and functional characterization of organic cation/carnitine transporter family in mice. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40064-72. [PubMed:11010964 ]
  6. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High affinity carnitine transporter; the uptake is partially sodium-ion dependent. Thought to mediate the L-carnitine secretion mechanism from testis epididymal epithelium into the lumen which is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and doxorubicin. The uptake of TEA is inhibited by various organic cations. The uptake of dox...
Gene Name:
SLC22A16
Uniprot ID:
Q86VW1
Molecular Weight:
64613.58 Da
References
  1. Enomoto A, Wempe MF, Tsuchida H, Shin HJ, Cha SH, Anzai N, Goto A, Sakamoto A, Niwa T, Kanai Y, Anders MW, Endou H: Molecular identification of a novel carnitine transporter specific to human testis. Insights into the mechanism of carnitine recognition. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27;277(39):36262-71. Epub 2002 Jun 27. [PubMed:12089149 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 27, 2016 02:25