Identification

Name
Phenobarbital
Accession Number
DB01174  (APRD00184)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 5-ethyl-5-phenyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
  • 5-Ethyl-5-phenyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-Ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid
  • 5-ethyl-5-phenylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
  • 5-Phenyl-5-ethylbarbituric acid
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenobarbitol
  • Phenobarbitone
  • Phenobarbituric Acid
  • Phenylaethylbarbitursaeure
  • Phenylethylbarbiturate
  • Phenylethylbarbituric Acid
  • Phenylethylbarbitursaeure
  • PHENYLETHYLMALONYLUREA
External IDs
NSC-128143 / NSC-9848
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Phenobarbital sodiumSW9M9BB5K357-30-7WRLGYAWRGXKSKG-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Barbilixir Elx 4mg/mlElixir4 mgOralD.C. Labs Limited1983-12-312005-07-19Canada
PhenobarbTablet15 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1957-12-31Not applicableCanada
PhenobarbTablet100 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1957-12-31Not applicableCanada
PhenobarbTablet30 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1957-12-31Not applicableCanada
PhenobarbTablet60 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1957-12-31Not applicableCanada
Phenobarb ElixirElixir5 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1965-12-31Not applicableCanada
Phenobarbital 100mg TabTablet100 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1975-12-312009-07-02Canada
Phenobarbital Sodium Injection 120mg/mlSolution120 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Phenobarbital Sodium Injection 30mg/mlSolution30 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousHospira, Inc.1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Phenobarbital Sodium Injection, USPSolution120 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2008-02-29Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PhenobarbitalTablet16.2 mg/1OralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Buisness Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-09-05Not applicableUs00603 5165 32 nlmimage10 2f1b97bc
PhenobarbitalTablet64.8 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-10-31Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet30 mg/1OralAv Pak2017-07-24Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet30 mg/1OralC.O. Truxton, Inc.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet16.2 mg/1OralEci Pharmaceuticals Llc2014-11-24Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet32.4 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.2003-02-01Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet97.2 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2015-03-312018-01-31Us
PhenobarbitalTablet97.2 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-08-31Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet97.2 mg/1OralQualitest2001-12-01Not applicableUs
PhenobarbitalTablet100 mg/1OralC.O. Truxton, Inc.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Luminal
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B-DonnaPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralWinder Laboratories, LLC2015-12-302016-03-11Us
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical1966-01-01Not applicableUs0143 114020170720 1564 4ev749
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralApace Packaging2000-12-01Not applicableUs
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2000-12-01Not applicableUs
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2000-12-01Not applicableUs00143 1140 10 nlmimage10 bb045dd2
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalPhenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Atropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralRebel Distributors2004-08-31Not applicableUs
Bellergal SpacetabsPhenobarbital (40.0 mg) + Belladonna (0.2 mg) + Ergotamine Tartrate (0.6 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralPaladin Labs Inc1959-01-01Not applicableCanada
Bellergal TabPhenobarbital (20 mg) + Belladonna (.1 mg) + Ergotamine (.3 mg)TabletOralSandoz1951-12-311997-08-12Canada
DiclophenPhenobarbital (15 mg) + Dicyclomine Hydrochloride (10 mg)CapsuleOralPro Doc Limitee1970-12-312009-07-23Canada
Dilantin W Phenobarbital 15mgPhenobarbital (15 mg) + Phenytoin sodium (100 mg)CapsuleOralParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1951-12-311999-04-08Canada
Categories
UNII
YQE403BP4D
CAS number
50-06-6
Weight
Average: 232.2353
Monoisotopic: 232.08479226
Chemical Formula
C12H12N2O3
InChI Key
DDBREPKUVSBGFI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H12N2O3/c1-2-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16/h3-7H,2H2,1H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17)
IUPAC Name
5-ethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CCC1(C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Phenobarbital, the longest-acting barbiturate, is used for its anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic properties in the management of all seizure disorders except absence (petit mal).

Mechanism of action

Phenobarbital acts on GABAA receptors, increasing synaptic inhibition. This has the effect of elevating seizure threshold and reducing the spread of seizure activity from a seizure focus. Phenobarbital may also inhibit calcium channels, resulting in a decrease in excitatory transmitter release. The sedative-hypnotic effects of phenobarbital are likely the result of its effect on the polysynaptic midbrain reticular formation, which controls CNS arousal.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Human
UNMDA receptor
antagonist
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
activator
Human
Absorption

Absorbed in varying degrees following oral, rectal or parenteral administration. The salts are more rapidly absorbed than are the acids. The rate of absorption is increased if the sodium salt is ingested as a dilute solution or taken on an empty stomach.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

20 to 45%

Metabolism

Hepatic (mostly via CYP2C19).

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

53 to 118 hours (mean 79 hours)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

CNS and respiratory depression which may progress to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, areflexia, constriction of the pupils to a slight degree (though in severe poisoning they may wshow paralytic dilation), oliguria, tachycardia, hypotension, lowered body temperature, and coma. Typical shock syndrome (apnea, circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death) may occur.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental, Illicit
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental, Illicit
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Abiraterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AceclofenacThe metabolism of Aceclofenac can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe metabolism of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
AdinazolamThe metabolism of Adinazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Albendazole can be reduced when Albendazole is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Alclometasone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AldesleukinPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Alfentanil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinThe metabolism of Alfuzosin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe metabolism of Aliskiren can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AllylestrenolThe metabolism of Allylestrenol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe metabolism of Alogliptin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe metabolism of Alprazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololThe serum concentration of Alprenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
AmbrisentanThe metabolism of Ambrisentan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AmbroxolThe metabolism of Ambroxol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmifostinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmiloridePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amiloride.Approved
AmineptineThe metabolism of Amineptine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Illicit, Withdrawn
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Amiodarone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Amodiaquine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Amphetamine.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Amprenavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmrinoneThe metabolism of Amrinone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
Amyl NitritePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of Androstenedione can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe serum concentration of anecortave acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ApomorphinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
ApremilastThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe metabolism of Aprepitant can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Arachidonic AcidThe metabolism of Arachidonic Acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ArgatrobanThe metabolism of Argatroban can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe serum concentration of Arotinolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Artemether can be reduced when Artemether is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
ArtesunateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Artesunate can be reduced when Artesunate is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AstemizoleThe metabolism of Astemizole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
AtamestaneThe serum concentration of Atamestane can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Atazanavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AtorvastatinThe metabolism of Atorvastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AvanafilThe metabolism of Avanafil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelnidipineThe metabolism of Azelnidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
AzimilideThe metabolism of Azimilide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Azithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BanoxantroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BarnidipineThe metabolism of Barnidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BazedoxifeneThe serum concentration of Bazedoxifene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BedaquilineThe serum concentration of Bedaquiline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BefunololThe serum concentration of Befunolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
BelinostatThe serum concentration of Belinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BencyclaneThe metabolism of Bencyclane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
BendroflumethiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenidipineThe metabolism of Benidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BenzphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Benzphetamine.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BeraprostThe metabolism of Beraprost can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BevantololThe serum concentration of Bevantolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BexaroteneThe metabolism of Bexarotene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BezafibrateThe metabolism of Bezafibrate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BicalutamideThe metabolism of Bicalutamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BisoprololThe metabolism of Bisoprolol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
BopindololThe serum concentration of Bopindolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BortezomibThe serum concentration of Bortezomib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe metabolism of Bosentan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BretyliumPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
BrinzolamideThe metabolism of Brinzolamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BrivaracetamThe metabolism of Brivaracetam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe metabolism of Bromazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromocriptineThe metabolism of Bromocriptine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Bromperidol.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe metabolism of Brompheniramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BucindololThe serum concentration of Bucindolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
BudesonideThe metabolism of Budesonide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BufuralolThe serum concentration of Bufuralol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BupranololThe serum concentration of Bupranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BuprenorphinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Bupropion can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
BusulfanThe metabolism of Busulfan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CabazitaxelThe metabolism of Cabazitaxel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CabergolineThe metabolism of Cabergoline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CabozantinibThe serum concentration of Cabozantinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CalcitriolThe metabolism of Calcitriol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe metabolism of Candesartan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CannabidiolThe serum concentration of Cannabidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Carbamazepine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Carbetocin.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe metabolism of Carbinoxamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CarboxyamidotriazoleThe metabolism of Carboxyamidotriazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CariprazineThe metabolism of Cariprazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CaroverineThe metabolism of Caroverine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
CarteololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololThe metabolism of Celiprolol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CephalexinThe metabolism of Cephalexin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe metabolism of Cerivastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
CevimelineThe metabolism of Cevimeline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe metabolism of Chlordiazepoxide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
ChlorphenamineThe metabolism of Chlorphenamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ChlorphentermineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Chlorphentermine.Illicit, Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidonePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Cholecalciferol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
CholestyramineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Cholestyramine.Approved
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CiclesonideThe metabolism of Ciclesonide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CilostazolThe metabolism of Cilostazol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinacalcet can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Citalopram can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clarithromycin can be increased when Clarithromycin is used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clevidipine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClindamycinThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Clobazam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClobetasoneThe serum concentration of Clobetasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClofarabinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clofarabine.Approved, Investigational
ClofazimineThe metabolism of Clofazimine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ClofibrateThe metabolism of Clofibrate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
clomethiazoleThe metabolism of clomethiazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe metabolism of Clonazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe metabolism of Clonidine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical
CloranololThe serum concentration of Cloranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
ClorazepateThe metabolism of Clorazepate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ClorindioneThe metabolism of Clorindione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotiazepamThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Clozapine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Cobicistat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Cocaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe metabolism of Codeine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe metabolism of Colchicine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe metabolism of Conivaptan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated estrogensThe metabolism of Conjugated estrogens can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CopanlisibThe metabolism of Copanlisib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe serum concentration of Cortexolone 17α-propionate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe serum concentration of Corticosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe metabolism of Cortisone acetate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
CyclopenthiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CytarabineThe metabolism of Cytarabine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daclatasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DantroleneThe metabolism of Dantrolene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapsone is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Darifenacin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DarodipineThe metabolism of Darodipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasabuvirThe metabolism of Dasabuvir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Deferasirox can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe metabolism of Deflazacort can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Delavirdine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental, Vet Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe metabolism of Desvenlafaxine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DeutetrabenazineThe metabolism of Deutetrabenazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateThe metabolism of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DexlansoprazoleThe metabolism of Dexlansoprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DexmethylphenidateThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Dexmethylphenidate.Approved
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Dextroamphetamine.Approved, Illicit
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe metabolism of Dextropropoxyphene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dezocine.Approved
DiazepamThe metabolism of Diazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DibenzepinThe metabolism of Dibenzepin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Diclofenac can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Diclofenamide.Approved
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DienestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DiethylpropionThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Diethylpropion.Approved, Illicit
DiethylstilbestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DigitoxinThe metabolism of Digitoxin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DigoxinThe metabolism of Digoxin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe metabolism of Dihydrocodeine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Dihydroergotamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DinutuximabPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dinutuximab.Approved
DiphenadioneThe metabolism of Diphenadione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Diphenhydramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DisopyramideThe serum concentration of Disopyramide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Disulfiram can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Docetaxel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DoconexentThe metabolism of Doconexent can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
DofetilideThe metabolism of Dofetilide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DomperidoneThe metabolism of Domperidone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DorzolamideThe metabolism of Dorzolamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Dosulepin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DotarizineThe metabolism of Dotarizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe serum concentration of Doxycycline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Dronedarone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DutasterideThe metabolism of Dutasteride can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Efavirenz can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe metabolism of Efonidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ElbasvirThe metabolism of Elbasvir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EltrombopagThe metabolism of Eltrombopag can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ElvitegravirThe serum concentration of Elvitegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EmpagliflozinPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe metabolism of Enalapril can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EpanololThe serum concentration of Epanolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
EperisoneThe metabolism of Eperisone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EpinastineThe metabolism of Epinastine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EplerenoneThe metabolism of Eplerenone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EpoprostenolThe metabolism of Epoprostenol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EprosartanPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ErgocalciferolThe metabolism of Ergocalciferol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical
Ergoloid mesylateThe metabolism of Ergoloid mesylate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ErgonovineThe metabolism of Ergonovine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ErgotamineThe metabolism of Ergotamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Erythromycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EsmirtazapineThe metabolism of Esmirtazapine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
EsmololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Esomeprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe metabolism of Estazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol valerate/DienogestThe metabolism of Estradiol valerate/Dienogest can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EstramustineThe metabolism of Estramustine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe therapeutic efficacy of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe metabolism of Estrone sulfate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EszopicloneThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Etacrynic acidPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved
EthanolPhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
Ethinyl EstradiolThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EthosuximideThe metabolism of Ethosuximide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateThe metabolism of Ethyl biscoumacetate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ethyl chloride.Experimental
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe metabolism of Ethylmorphine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethynodiol diacetate can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe metabolism of Etizolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EtodolacThe metabolism of Etodolac can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtonogestrelThe metabolism of Etonogestrel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ExemestaneThe serum concentration of Exemestane can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FamciclovirThe metabolism of Famciclovir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Felbamate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FendilineThe metabolism of Fendiline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
FenofibrateThe metabolism of Fenofibrate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FenoldopamPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe metabolism of Fesoterodine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FimasartanPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Fimasartan.Approved
FinasterideThe metabolism of Finasteride can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FingolimodThe metabolism of Fingolimod can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FluindioneThe metabolism of Fluindione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FlunisolideThe metabolism of Flunisolide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FlunitrazepamThe metabolism of Flunitrazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe metabolism of Fluorometholone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FlurazepamThe metabolism of Flurazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
FlurbiprofenThe metabolism of Flurbiprofen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe metabolism of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe metabolism of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Fluvastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
Folic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Fosamprenavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
FosinoprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinFosphenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
FulvestrantThe metabolism of Fulvestrant can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
FurosemidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
GalantamineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GallopamilThe metabolism of Gallopamil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GavestinelThe metabolism of Gavestinel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Gemfibrozil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GepefrineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Gepefrine.Experimental
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GestodeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gestodene can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
GlecaprevirThe serum concentration of Glecaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GlimepirideThe metabolism of Glimepiride can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GlycerinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Glycerin.Approved, Investigational
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GranisetronThe metabolism of Granisetron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
GrazoprevirThe metabolism of Grazoprevir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe metabolism of Grepafloxacin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
GriseofulvinThe serum concentration of Griseofulvin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Guanfacine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HalofantrineThe metabolism of Halofantrine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
HalothaneThe metabolism of Halothane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
HistamineThe metabolism of Histamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
HydralazinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodonePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
HydromorphoneThe metabolism of Hydromorphone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Hydroxyamphetamine.Approved
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe metabolism of Hydroxyprogesterone caproate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IbuprofenThe metabolism of Ibuprofen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IcotinibThe metabolism of Icotinib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IdarubicinThe metabolism of Idarubicin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be increased when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
IloperidoneThe metabolism of Iloperidone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IloprostPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ImidafenacinThe metabolism of Imidafenacin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ImidaprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ImiquimodThe metabolism of Imiquimod can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IndacaterolThe metabolism of Indacaterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe metabolism of Indapamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IndenololThe serum concentration of Indenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Indinavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
indisulamThe metabolism of indisulam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
IndomethacinThe metabolism of Indomethacin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IndoraminPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
Inotuzumab ozogamicinThe serum concentration of Inotuzumab ozogamicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Iofetamine I-123The serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Iofetamine I-123.Approved
Ipratropium bromideThe metabolism of Ipratropium bromide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IprindoleThe metabolism of Iprindole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Irbesartan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be reduced when Irinotecan is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Isavuconazonium can be reduced when Isavuconazonium is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Dinitrate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Mononitrate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IsoxsuprinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Itraconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IvabradineThe serum concentration of Ivabradine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
IvermectinThe metabolism of Ivermectin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
IxabepiloneThe serum concentration of Ixabepilone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Ixazomib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
KetobemidoneThe metabolism of Ketobemidone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Ketoconazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
KetoprofenThe metabolism of Ketoprofen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
LabetalolPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineThe metabolism of Lacidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LandiololThe serum concentration of Landiolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Lapatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LaquinimodThe metabolism of Laquinimod can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Leflunomide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LenvatinibThe metabolism of Lenvatinib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LercanidipineThe metabolism of Lercanidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LesinuradThe metabolism of Lesinurad can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LetrozoleThe metabolism of Letrozole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LeucovorinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Leucovorin.Approved
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe metabolism of Levocetirizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LevoleucovorinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Levoleucovorin.Approved
Levomefolic acidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Levomefolic acid.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe metabolism of Levomethadyl Acetate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe metabolism of Levomilnacipran can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe metabolism of Levonorgestrel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LevosimendanPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe metabolism of Levothyroxine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LicofeloneThe metabolism of Licofelone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
LidoflazineThe metabolism of Lidoflazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisdexamfetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Lisdexamfetamine.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisurideThe metabolism of Lisuride can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Lithium.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofepramineThe metabolism of Lofepramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
LofexidinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe metabolism of Lomitapide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LoperamideThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Lopinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe metabolism of Loratadine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LornoxicamThe metabolism of Lornoxicam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Losartan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe serum concentration of Lumefantrine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LumiracoxibThe metabolism of Lumiracoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
LynestrenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Lynestrenol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Investigational
MacitentanThe serum concentration of Macitentan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MalathionThe metabolism of Malathion can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ManidipineThe metabolism of Manidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MaravirocThe serum concentration of Maraviroc can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
MebendazoleThe metabolism of Mebendazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MecamylaminePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe metabolism of Medroxyprogesterone acetate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Mefenamic acidThe metabolism of Mefenamic acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenobarbital can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MelatoninThe metabolism of Melatonin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Melperone.Approved
MephedroneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Mephedrone.Investigational
MephentermineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Mephentermine.Approved
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational, Withdrawn
MepindololThe serum concentration of Mepindolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved
MestranolThe metabolism of Mestranol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethallenestrilThe therapeutic efficacy of Methallenestril can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Experimental
MethamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Methamphetamine.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe metabolism of Methaqualone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methazolamide.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MethotrimeprazinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxsalenThe metabolism of Methoxsalen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MethoxyphenamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Methoxyphenamine.Experimental
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe metabolism of Methyl salicylate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenidateThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Methylphenidate.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe metabolism of Methylphenobarbital can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyltestosteroneThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MetipranololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazonePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MetronidazoleThe serum concentration of Metronidazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosinePhenobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenobarbital can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved
MibefradilThe metabolism of Mibefradil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe metabolism of Miconazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe metabolism of Midazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
MidomafetamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Midostaurin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Mirabegron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MirtazapinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MMDAThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with MMDA.Experimental, Illicit
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Moclobemide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Modafinil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Molindone.Approved
MontelukastThe metabolism of Montelukast can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
MorphineThe metabolism of Morphine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved
muraglitazarThe metabolism of muraglitazar can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe metabolism of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NaftopidilThe metabolism of Naftopidil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NaloxoneThe metabolism of Naloxone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaproxenThe metabolism of Naproxen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
NebivololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Nefazodone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Nelfinavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NeratinibThe metabolism of Neratinib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
NesiritidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Netupitant can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Nevirapine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NiclosamideThe metabolism of Niclosamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Nifedipine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NiguldipineThe metabolism of Niguldipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
NiludipineThe metabolism of Niludipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
NilvadipineThe metabolism of Nilvadipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NimesulideThe metabolism of Nimesulide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Nisoldipine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NitrazepamThe metabolism of Nitrazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NitroglycerinPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussidePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NorelgestrominThe therapeutic efficacy of Norelgestromin can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
NorethisteroneThe metabolism of Norethisterone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Norflurane.Investigational
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Norgestimate can be decreased when used in combination with Phenobarbital.Approved
NorgestrelThe metabolism of Norgestrel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ObinutuzumabPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved
OdanacatibThe metabolism of Odanacatib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl-estrone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
OlmesartanPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OlodaterolThe metabolism of Olodaterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OlopatadineThe metabolism of Olopatadine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OmbitasvirThe metabolism of Ombitasvir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Omeprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OpipramolThe metabolism of Opipramol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OtiloniumThe metabolism of Otilonium can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
OxaprozinThe metabolism of Oxaprozin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OxazepamThe metabolism of Oxazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Oxcarbazepine can be reduced when Oxcarbazepine is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Oxethazaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxybutyninThe metabolism of Oxybutynin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe metabolism of Oxycodone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe metabolism of Oxymorphone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Palbociclib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Paliperidone.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PalonosetronThe metabolism of Palonosetron can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PapaverinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Papaverine.Approved
ParaldehydePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParamethadioneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ParamethasoneThe metabolism of Paramethasone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ParecoxibThe metabolism of Parecoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ParicalcitolThe metabolism of Paricalcitol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ParitaprevirThe metabolism of Paritaprevir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PenbutololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PergolideThe metabolism of Pergolide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PermethrinThe metabolism of Permethrin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe metabolism of Perospirone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PethidinePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pethidine.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenelzinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenelzine.Approved
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenindioneThe metabolism of Phenindione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxybenzamineThe metabolism of Phenoxybenzamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenprocoumonThe metabolism of Phenprocoumon can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhentermineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Phentermine.Approved, Illicit
PhentolaminePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
PhenylbutazoneThe metabolism of Phenylbutazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenytoinPhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PibrentasvirThe serum concentration of Pibrentasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PilocarpineThe metabolism of Pilocarpine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Pimecrolimus can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe metabolism of Pimozide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PinacidilThe metabolism of Pinacidil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
PinaveriumThe metabolism of Pinaverium can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PindololPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PiroxicamThe metabolism of Piroxicam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe metabolism of Pitavastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PodofiloxThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PolythiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PomalidomideThe metabolism of Pomalidomide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Posaconazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PractololThe serum concentration of Practolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PramipexolePhenobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrasteroneThe metabolism of Prasterone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe serum concentration of Prasterone sulfate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PravastatinThe metabolism of Pravastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PrazepamThe metabolism of Prazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
PraziquantelThe serum concentration of Praziquantel can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
PrenylamineThe metabolism of Prenylamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe metabolism of Prochlorperazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe metabolism of Promethazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PropacetamolThe metabolism of Propacetamol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
Propoxyphene napsylateThe metabolism of Propoxyphene napsylate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with PSD502.Investigational
PseudoephedrineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Pseudoephedrine.Approved
PyrazinamideThe metabolism of Pyrazinamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PyridoxineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be increased when combined with Pyridoxine.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe metabolism of Quazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
QuinacrineThe metabolism of Quinacrine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
QuinaprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazonePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidinePhenobarbital may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Rabeprazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RaloxifeneThe metabolism of Raloxifene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RamelteonThe metabolism of Ramelteon can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Rasagiline.Approved
ReboxetineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
RepaglinideThe metabolism of Repaglinide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RetapamulinThe metabolism of Retapamulin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Rifabutin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RimonabantThe metabolism of Rimonabant can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe metabolism of Riociguat can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RisedronateThe metabolism of Risedronate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Risperidone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitobegronThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Ritobegron.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RofecoxibThe metabolism of Rofecoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational, Withdrawn
RoflumilastThe serum concentration of Roflumilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Rolapitant can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopinirolePhenobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RotigotinePhenobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RoxithromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
RucaparibThe metabolism of Rucaparib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
RufinamideThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Rufinamide.Approved
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
RuxolitinibThe metabolism of Ruxolitinib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SacubitrilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Sacubitril.Approved
SafinamideThe metabolism of Safinamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Salicylic acidThe metabolism of Salicylic acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SalmeterolThe metabolism of Salmeterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Saquinavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe metabolism of Selexipag can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SertindoleThe metabolism of Sertindole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SevofluraneThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SibutramineThe metabolism of Sibutramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe metabolism of Silodosin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SimvastatinThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SirolimusThe metabolism of Sirolimus can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe metabolism of Sitagliptin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanThe metabolism of Sitaxentan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SolifenacinThe metabolism of Solifenacin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SomatostatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Somatostatin is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SotalolPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Sotalol.Approved
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
SpiramycinThe metabolism of Spiramycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Stiripentol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
StreptokinasePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Streptokinase.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SufentanilThe metabolism of Sufentanil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Sulfadiazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SulfamoxoleThe metabolism of Sulfamoxole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe metabolism of Sulfinpyrazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfisoxazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Sulpiride.Approved
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Sunitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
SuprofenThe metabolism of Suprofen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Withdrawn
SuvorexantPhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TacrineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TalinololThe serum concentration of Talinolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TamsulosinThe metabolism of Tamsulosin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
TasimelteonThe serum concentration of Tasimelteon can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TasosartanThe metabolism of Tasosartan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Taurochenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Taurochenodeoxycholic acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
TazaroteneThe metabolism of Tazarotene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Telithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe metabolism of Temazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TemsirolimusThe metabolism of Temsirolimus can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TenoxicamThe metabolism of Tenoxicam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerfenadineThe metabolism of Terfenadine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
TerodilineThe metabolism of Terodiline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
TertatololThe serum concentration of Tertatolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
TesmilifeneThe metabolism of Tesmilifene can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetracosactideTetracosactide may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
TetracyclineThe metabolism of Tetracycline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomidePhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ThiamylalThe metabolism of Thiamylal can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Thiotepa can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe metabolism of Tiagabine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TianeptineThe metabolism of Tianeptine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ticagrelor can be reduced when Ticagrelor is used in combination with Phenobarbital resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ticlopidine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TinidazoleThe metabolism of Tinidazole can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TioclomarolThe metabolism of Tioclomarol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Experimental
TiotropiumThe metabolism of Tiotropium can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Tipranavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TofacitinibThe serum concentration of Tofacitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TolazolinePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tolbutamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
Tolfenamic AcidThe metabolism of Tolfenamic Acid can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe metabolism of Tramadol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastThe metabolism of Tranilast can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
Trastuzumab emtansineThe metabolism of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TrazodoneThe metabolism of Trazodone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TreprostinilThe serum concentration of Treprostinil can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe metabolism of Triamcinolone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamterenePhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Triamterene.Approved
TriazolamThe metabolism of Triazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazidePhenobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Trichloroethylene.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Troleandomycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
UdenafilThe metabolism of Udenafil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ValbenazineThe metabolism of Valbenazine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe metabolism of Valdecoxib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Valsartan can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibThe serum concentration of Vandetanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VanoxerineThe metabolism of Vanoxerine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
VardenafilThe metabolism of Vardenafil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VelpatasvirThe metabolism of Velpatasvir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Vemurafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VenetoclaxThe metabolism of Venetoclax can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VicrivirocThe metabolism of Vicriviroc can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VilanterolThe metabolism of Vilanterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VinblastineThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
VincristineThe metabolism of Vincristine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
VindesineThe metabolism of Vindesine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VinorelbineThe metabolism of Vinorelbine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
VinpocetineThe metabolism of Vinpocetine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Investigational
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VismodegibThe metabolism of Vismodegib can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VorapaxarThe serum concentration of Vorapaxar can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
VoxilaprevirThe metabolism of Voxilaprevir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XimelagatranThe metabolism of Ximelagatran can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
XylometazolineThe metabolism of Xylometazoline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
YohimbineThe metabolism of Yohimbine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ZaleplonThe serum concentration of Zaleplon can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZaltoprofenThe metabolism of Zaltoprofen can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZidovudineThe metabolism of Zidovudine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ziprasidone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemPhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZomepiracThe metabolism of Zomepirac can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Withdrawn
ZonisamideThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Phenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Increase dietary intake of magnesium, folate, vitamin B6, B12, and/or consider taking a multivitamin.
  • Take on an empty stomach for quicker absorption

References

Synthesis Reference

Tong Sun, Shawn Watson, Rajesh Manchanda, "PHENOBARBITAL SALTS; METHODS OF MAKING; AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF." U.S. Patent US20100035904, issued February 11, 2010.

US20100035904
General References
  1. Kwan P, Brodie MJ: Phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy in the 21st century: a critical review. Epilepsia. 2004 Sep;45(9):1141-9. [PubMed:15329080]
  2. Taylor S, Tudur Smith C, Williamson PR, Marson AG: Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD002217. [PubMed:11687150]
  3. Tudur Smith C, Marson AG, Williamson PR: Carbamazepine versus phenobarbitone monotherapy for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD001904. [PubMed:12535420]
  4. Kalviainen R, Eriksson K, Parviainen I: Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(9):759-68. [PubMed:16142991]
  5. Booth D, Evans DJ: Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD004218. [PubMed:15495087]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15305
KEGG Drug
D00506
KEGG Compound
C07434
PubChem Compound
4763
PubChem Substance
46505776
ChemSpider
4599
BindingDB
50021437
ChEBI
8069
ChEMBL
CHEMBL40
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000061
PharmGKB
PA450911
IUPHAR
2804
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Phenobarbital
ATC Codes
N03AA02 — PhenobarbitalN05CB01 — Combinations of barbiturates
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08 — Antimuscarinics Antispasmodics
  • 28:12.04 — Barbiturates
  • 28:24.04 — Barbiturates
  • 28:12.12 — Hydantoins
  • 28:08.08 — Opiate Agonists
  • 86:16.00 — Respiratory Smooth Muscle Relaxants
MSDS
Download (53 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentDrug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Malignant Lymphomas / Neutropenias / Small Intestine Cancer / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
2RecruitingTreatmentGeneralized Convulsive Status Epilepticus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal / Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal1
3CompletedPreventionInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Intracranial Hemorrhages / Newborn Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depressive State / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies / Refractory seizure disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
4TerminatedTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeonatal Convulsions1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
ElixirOral4 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral30 mg
TabletOral60 mg
ElixirOral5 mg
ElixirOral20 mg/5mL
LiquidOral20 mg/5mL
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral15 mg/1
TabletOral16.2 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg/1
TabletOral32.4 mg/1
TabletOral60 mg/1
TabletOral64.8 mg/1
TabletOral97.2 mg/1
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous130 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous65 mg/mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous120 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous30 mg
ElixirOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Phenobarbital 130 mg/ml vial4.32USD ml
Phenobarbital 65 mg/ml vial1.63USD ml
Phenobarbital sodium powder0.36USD g
Pms-Phenobarbital 100 mg Tablet0.15USD tablet
Phenobarbital powder0.13USD g
Pms-Phenobarbital 60 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
Phenobarbital 97.2 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
Phenobarbital 64.8 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Pms-Phenobarbital 5 mg/ml Elixir0.09USD ml
Phenobarbital 16.2 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Phenobarbital 30 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Phenobarbital 32.4 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Pms-Phenobarbital 30 mg Tablet0.08USD tablet
Phenobarbital 100 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Pms-Phenobarbital 15 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
PHENobarbital 20 mg/5ml Elixir0.06USD ml
Phenobarbital 60 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Phenobarbital 15 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)174 °CPhysProp
water solubility1110 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.47HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa7.3BUDAVARI,S ET AL. (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.276 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.4ALOGPS
logP1.41ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity59.75 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9935
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9736
Caco-2 permeable-0.5561
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5157
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6472
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9869
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9235
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6962
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7702
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.84
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9023
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9593
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8664
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9236
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9164
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7469
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9894
Rat acute toxicity3.1244 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.99
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9354
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.44 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0udi-5970000000-7bda34bd3bb88b5fd9fd
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-55265fc1e12027dc6454
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0uxr-6950000000-193bf296d3e5d1705628
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0190000000-8cf53cd66a890256ea98
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1290000000-73d0e0b25f99ffc6a500
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0016-3950000000-ab62a9483b8a2a65b563
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-4121e8dd703c01c1161c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-4976dfc244184e5d627b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1890000000-a12eb2be0b05b9f234de
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1920000000-43ed71cd16bfceef49e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-08fr-2900000000-236ae1dab83b15539a86
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053u-3900000000-2a994f0e45c022cca640
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053u-4900000000-066a53ca113150f58406
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05o3-6900000000-b8f9c9d0f71b6d2c6c2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uy3-8900000000-6bcd457bfff85f05fe9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-9500000000-0ecfff7e43e9e78d677e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxs-9300000000-7413ad1c764a1ae4a98e
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Barbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl ureas / Diazinanes / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Dicarboximides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Barbiturate / Ureide / N-acyl urea / Monocyclic benzene moiety / 1,3-diazinane / Benzenoid / Dicarboximide / Urea / Carbonic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:8069)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  5. Macdonald RL, McLean MJ: Anticonvulsant drugs: mechanisms of action. Adv Neurol. 1986;44:713-36. [PubMed:2871724]
  6. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  7. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  3. Jin LJ, Schlesinger F, Song YP, Dengler R, Krampfl K: The interaction of the neuroprotective compounds riluzole and phenobarbital with AMPA-type glutamate receptors: a patch-clamp study. Pharmacology. 2010;85(1):54-62. doi: 10.1159/000268641. Epub 2009 Dec 23. [PubMed:20051697]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...

Components:
References
  1. Daniell LC: Effect of anesthetic and convulsant barbiturates on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium flux in brain membrane vesicles. Pharmacology. 1994 Nov;49(5):296-307. [PubMed:7862741]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Faucette SR, Wang H, Hamilton GA, Jolley SL, Gilbert D, Lindley C, Yan B, Negishi M, LeCluyse EL: Regulation of CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):348-58. [PubMed:14977870]
  2. Kobayashi K, Yamagami S, Higuchi T, Hosokawa M, Chiba K: Key structural features of ligands for activation of human pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):468-72. [PubMed:15039302]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Madan A, Graham RA, Carroll KM, Mudra DR, Burton LA, Krueger LA, Downey AD, Czerwinski M, Forster J, Ribadeneira MD, Gan LS, LeCluyse EL, Zech K, Robertson P Jr, Koch P, Antonian L, Wagner G, Yu L, Parkinson A: Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Apr;31(4):421-31. [PubMed:12642468]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Kawalek JC, Howard KD, Farrell DE, Derr J, Cope CV, Jackson JD, Myers MJ: Effect of oral administration of low doses of pentobarbital on the induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms and cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in immature Beagles. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Sep;64(9):1167-75. [PubMed:13677397]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Kawalek JC, Howard KD, Farrell DE, Derr J, Cope CV, Jackson JD, Myers MJ: Effect of oral administration of low doses of pentobarbital on the induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms and cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in immature Beagles. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Sep;64(9):1167-75. [PubMed:13677397]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. von Bahr C, Steiner E, Koike Y, Gabrielsson J: Time course of enzyme induction in humans: effect of pentobarbital on nortriptyline metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jul;64(1):18-26. [PubMed:9695715]
  3. Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Nortriptyline E-10-hydroxylation in vitro is mediated by human CYP2D6 (high affinity) and CYP3A4 (low affinity): implications for interactions with enzyme-inducing drugs. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Jun;39(6):567-77. [PubMed:10354960]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sakuma T, Ohtake M, Katsurayama Y, Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N: Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Mar;27(3):379-84. [PubMed:10064569]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Kawalek JC, Howard KD, Farrell DE, Derr J, Cope CV, Jackson JD, Myers MJ: Effect of oral administration of low doses of pentobarbital on the induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms and cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in immature Beagles. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Sep;64(9):1167-75. [PubMed:13677397]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID
P13584
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4B1
Molecular Weight
58990.64 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schuetz EG, Beck WT, Schuetz JD: Modulators and substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A coordinately up-regulate these proteins in human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):311-8. [PubMed:8632764]
  2. Luna-Tortos C, Fedrowitz M, Loscher W: Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Dec;55(8):1364-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.08.032. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18824002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Kiuchi Y, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Tyson CA, Sugiyama Y: cDNA cloning and inducible expression of human multidrug resistance associated protein 3 (MRP3). FEBS Lett. 1998 Aug 14;433(1-2):149-52. [PubMed:9738950]
  2. Cherrington NJ, Slitt AL, Maher JM, Zhang XX, Zhang J, Huang W, Wan YJ, Moore DD, Klaassen CD: Induction of multidrug resistance protein 3 (mrp3) in vivo is independent of constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Nov;31(11):1315-9. [PubMed:14570762]
  3. Slitt AL, Cherrington NJ, Maher JM, Klaassen CD: Induction of multidrug resistance protein 3 in rat liver is associated with altered vectorial excretion of acetaminophen metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Sep;31(9):1176-86. [PubMed:12920174]
  4. Ogawa K, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Ishikawa T, Meier PJ, Hirose K, Akizawa T, Yoshioka M, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of inducible nature of MRP3 in rat liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Mar;278(3):G438-46. [PubMed:10712264]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Kast HR, Goodwin B, Tarr PT, Jones SA, Anisfeld AM, Stoltz CM, Tontonoz P, Kliewer S, Willson TM, Edwards PA: Regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) by the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X-activated receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 25;277(4):2908-15. Epub 2001 Nov 12. [PubMed:11706036]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Kiuchi Y, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Tyson CA, Sugiyama Y: cDNA cloning and inducible expression of human multidrug resistance associated protein 3 (MRP3). FEBS Lett. 1998 Aug 14;433(1-2):149-52. [PubMed:9738950]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, a...
Gene Name
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID
Q92959
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
Molecular Weight
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Hagenbuch N, Reichel C, Stieger B, Cattori V, Fattinger KE, Landmann L, Meier PJ, Kullak-Ublick GA: Effect of phenobarbital on the expression of bile salt and organic anion transporters of rat liver. J Hepatol. 2001 Jun;34(6):881-7. [PubMed:11451172]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Courtois A, Payen L, Le Ferrec E, Scheffer GL, Trinquart Y, Guillouzo A, Fardel O: Differential regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and cytochromes P450 2B1/2 and 3A1/2 in phenobarbital-treated hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 15;63(2):333-41. [PubMed:11841808]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2017 19:28