Identification

Name
Pentobarbital
Accession Number
DB00312  (APRD01174)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 5-Ethyl-5-(1-methyl-butyl)-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-Ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
  • 5-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid
  • 5-ethyl-5-(sec-pentyl)barbituric acid
  • Pentobarbital
  • Pentobarbitone
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Pentobarbital SodiumNJJ0475N0S57-33-0QGMRQYFBGABWDR-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nembutal Sodium Cap 100mgCapsule100 mgOralAbbott1951-12-311997-08-18Canada
Nembutal Sodium Inj 50mg/mlSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousAbbott1976-12-312008-06-06Canada
Nova Rectal Sup 25mgSuppository25 mgRectalSabex Inc1984-12-311999-08-12Canada
Nova Rectal Sup 50mgSuppository50 mgRectalSabex Inc1984-12-312001-08-02Canada
Pentobarbital Sodium Cap 50mgCapsule50 mgOralSands Pharm1972-12-311996-09-10Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nembutal SodiumInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousOak Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.)1973-09-19Not applicableUs
Nembutal SodiumInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousLundbeck Inc.1973-09-192011-12-22Us
Novo-pentobarb 100mgCapsule100 mgOralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312005-08-10Canada
Pentobarbital SodiumInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousRenaissance Ssa, Llc2018-02-282018-06-28Us
Pentobarbital SodiumInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2017-04-19Not applicableUs
Pentobarbital SodiumInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousLeucadia Pharmaceuticals2018-03-05Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cafergot Pb SupPentobarbital (60 mg) + Belladonna (0.25 mg) + Caffeine (100 mg) + Ergotamine (2 mg)SuppositoryRectalNovartis1958-12-312003-01-15Canada
Cafergot Pb TabPentobarbital Sodium (30 mg) + Belladonna (0.125 mg) + Caffeine (100 mg) + Ergotamine (1 mg)TabletOralNovartis1951-12-311999-08-04Canada
International/Other Brands
Nembutal (Lundbeck)
Categories
UNII
I4744080IR
CAS number
76-74-4
Weight
Average: 226.2722
Monoisotopic: 226.131742452
Chemical Formula
C11H18N2O3
InChI Key
WEXRUCMBJFQVBZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H18N2O3/c1-4-6-7(3)11(5-2)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h7H,4-6H2,1-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
IUPAC Name
5-ethyl-5-(pentan-2-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the short-term treatment of insomnia.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Pentobarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the treatment of short term insomnia. It belongs to a group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants that induce drowsiness and relieve tension or nervousness. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation.

Mechanism of action

Pentobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged. All of these effects are associated with marked decreases in GABA-sensitive neuronal calcium conductance (gCa). The net result of barbiturate action is acute potentiation of inhibitory GABAergic tone. Barbiturates also act through potent (if less well characterized) and direct inhibition of excitatory AMPA-type glutamate receptors, resulting in a profound suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
UNMDA receptor
antagonist
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
activator
Human
Absorption

Barbiturates are absorbed in varying degrees following oral, rectal, or parenteral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

by hepatic microsomal enzyme system

Route of elimination

Barbiturates are metabolized primarily by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, and the metabolic products are excreted in the urine, and less commonly, in the feces. Approximately 25 to 50 percent of a dose of aprobarbital or phenobarbital is eliminated unchanged in the urine, whereas the amount of other barbiturates excreted unchanged in the urine is negligible.

Half life

5 to 50 hours (dose dependent)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentobarbital can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Knodell RG, Spector MH, Brooks DA, Keller FX, Kyner WT: Alterations in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in response to parenteral and enteral alimentation in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1980 Dec;79(6):1211-6. [PubMed:6777235]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014457
KEGG Drug
D00499
KEGG Compound
C07422
PubChem Compound
4737
PubChem Substance
46508399
ChemSpider
4575
BindingDB
50055935
ChEBI
7983
ChEMBL
CHEMBL448
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000671
PharmGKB
PA450859
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pentobarbital
ATC Codes
N05CA01 — PentobarbitalN05CB01 — Combinations of barbiturates
MSDS
Download (50.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedPreventionSedative Abuse1
1RecruitingNot AvailableHeart Diseases1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentSodium Oxybate / Substance-Related Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
3TerminatedTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / Gynaecological infection / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hyperlipidemias / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain NOS / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombotic events / Toxic effect of hydrocyanic acid and cyanides / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherSedation therapy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ovation pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Vitarine pharmaceuticals inc
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Anabolic inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Everylife
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • L perrigo co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Lundbeck inc
  • Nexgen pharma inc
Packagers
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Lundbeck Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Professional Co.
  • RA Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SuppositoryRectal
TabletOral
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
SuppositoryRectal25 mg
SuppositoryRectal50 mg
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Pentobarbital sodium powder27.0USD g
Nembutal sodium 50 mg/ml via20.65USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)129.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility679 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.10HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.52ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.11 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.864 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.16ALOGPS
logP1.89ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.41 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9713
Caco-2 permeable-0.5926
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5947
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6155
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9218
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7789
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7066
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9086
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7484
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.711
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9522
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9276
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6789
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.89
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9603
Rat acute toxicity3.2266 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9685
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8771
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.77 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-0f97406e79f836abc074
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4l-5900000000-08245bcc95f52792c863
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4l-6900000000-a65d8c67e006ad448814
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1290000000-90bfbd79bea4fe2b007b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0bti-1900000000-7e31dcdb272669c13101
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01bc-9100000000-c9fe8276b8137dc73d20
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-3980000000-84ea889a0fae4bed224b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9500000000-c226fe2dfb4ee13e4ae8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000x-9500000000-cd4190b9c110ee5e4428

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. These are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Pyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Hydropyrimidines / Organic carbonic acids and derivatives / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Pyrimidone / Hydropyrimidine / 2,5-dihydropyrimidine / Carbonic acid derivative / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Azacycle / Organic oxide / Organooxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:7983)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Steinbach JH, Akk G: Modulation of GABA(A) receptor channel gating by pentobarbital. J Physiol. 2001 Dec 15;537(Pt 3):715-33. [PubMed:11744750]
  2. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514]
  3. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  5. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  6. Davies DL, McCauley LD, Bolger MB, Alkana RL: Pressure-sensitive and -insensitive coupling in gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Oct;157(4):401-10. [PubMed:11605100]
  7. Rahman M, Zhu D, Lindblad C, Johansson IM, Holmberg E, Isaksson M, Taube M, Backstrom T, Wang MD: GABA-site antagonism and pentobarbital actions do not depend on the alpha-subunit type in the recombinant rat GABA receptor. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2006 Aug;187(4):479-88. [PubMed:16866778]
  8. Feigenspan A, Weiler R: Electrophysiological properties of mouse horizontal cell GABAA receptors. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Nov;92(5):2789-801. Epub 2004 Jul 7. [PubMed:15240758]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  10. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  11. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...

Components:
References
  1. Daniell LC: Effect of anesthetic and convulsant barbiturates on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium flux in brain membrane vesicles. Pharmacology. 1994 Nov;49(5):296-307. [PubMed:7862741]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi K, Yamagami S, Higuchi T, Hosokawa M, Chiba K: Key structural features of ligands for activation of human pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):468-72. [PubMed:15039302]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Mamiya K, Hadama A, Yukawa E, Ieiri I, Otsubo K, Ninomiya H, Tashiro N, Higuchi S: CYP2C19 polymorphism effect on phenobarbitone. Pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients with epilepsy: analysis by population pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):821-5. [PubMed:10805060]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. CYP2A6 cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily A member 6 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 08:39