Alcohol Dependence

Also known as: Alcohol Addiction / Chronic alcohol abuse / Alcohol abuse chronic / Alcoholism / Dipsomania / Chronic alcoholism / Alcohol abuse, continuous drinking behaviour / Alcohol abuse, continuous drinking behavior / Alcohol dependence syndrome

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00659AcamprosateAcamprosate, also known by the brand name Campral™, is a drug used for treating alcohol dependence. Acamprosate is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination of attending support groups and abstinence from alcohol. Certain serious side effects include allergic reactions, irregular heartbeats, and low or high blood pressure, while less serious side effects include headaches, insomnia, and impotence. Acamprosate should not be taken by people with kidney problems or allergies to the drug.
DB00472FluoxetineFluoxetine hydrochloride is the first agent of the class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine is a racemic mixture of the R- and S- enantiomers and are of equivalent pharmacologic activity. Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Fluoxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and in combination with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Fluoxetine is the most anorexic and stimulating SSRI.
DB06230NalmefeneNalmefene is a 6-methylene analogue of naltrexone and opioid system modulator but with no opioid activity [FDA Label]. It mediates a partial agonist effect on kappa receptors [A31301]. It is primarily used in the management of alcohol dependence in adult patients in conjunction with continuous psychosocial support focused on treatment adherence and reducing alcohol consumption [L1024] when it is exists as the hydrochloride dihydrate form under the trade name Selincro. Selincro is orally administered as tablets. Nalmefene works to reduce alcohol consumption in individuals by positive reward effect of alcohol which involves the opioid system, as well as the sedative and dysphoric properties of alcohol [A31301]. It is also indicated to prevent or reverse the effects of opioids, including respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension by acting on the opioid receptor as an antagonist [FDA Label] under the trade name Revex for intramuscular, intravenous and subcutaneous injection, where nalmefene hydrochloride is an active ingredient.
DB00704NaltrexoneDerivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of naloxone. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. [Wikipedia]. A combination product containing phentermine and topiramate extended-release called QSYMIA® is indicated for the management of obesity. On August 2013, an extended released formulation, marketed as Trokendi XR has been approved for the management of partial onset, tonic-clonic, and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome seizures.
DB00656TrazodoneA serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00659AcamprosateMetabotropic glutamate receptor 5target
DB00659AcamprosateProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
DB00659AcamprosateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00659AcamprosateGlutamate (NMDA) receptortarget
DB00472FluoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCYP2B proteinenzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineSerum albumincarrier
DB00472FluoxetineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00472FluoxetinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00472Fluoxetine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00472FluoxetineCyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4target
DB06230NalmefeneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00704NaltrexoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneHCG20471, isoform CRA_ctarget
DB00704NaltrexoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00704Naltrexone0Completed1
DB00181Baclofen1Completed2
DB00215Citalopram1Completed1
DB01221Ketamine1Completed1
DB12341LY-24563021Completed1
DB01017Minocycline1Recruiting1
DB06230Nalmefene1Completed2
DB00704Naltrexone1Completed1
DB12543Samidorphan1Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate1 / 2Completed1
DB12338Carisbamate1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB12928GET-731 / 2Completed1
DB00704Naltrexone1 / 2Completed1
DB00457Prazosin1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00659Acamprosate2Completed1
DB00673Aprepitant2Completed2
DB00673Aprepitant2Terminated1
DB01238Aripiprazole2Completed1
DB00181Baclofen2Completed1
DB01075Diphenhydramine2Recruiting1
DB00590Doxazosin2Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine2Completed1
DB06717Fosaprepitant2Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2Completed1
DB04465Lactose2Completed1
DB01202Levetiracetam2Terminated1
DB00834Mifepristone2Recruiting1
DB00370Mirtazapine2Completed2
DB00704Naltrexone2Completed6
DB00334Olanzapine2Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron2Completed2
DB12585Ondelopran2Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin2Recruiting1
DB12572Pexacerfont2Completed1
DB01132Pioglitazone2Terminated1
DB00230Pregabalin2Completed1
DB00571Propranolol2Completed1
DB11664Psilocybine2Recruiting1
DB11664Psilocybine2Unknown Status1
DB01224Quetiapine2Completed1
DB01104Sertraline2Completed1
DB00273Topiramate2Completed2
DB00273Topiramate2Terminated2
DB12580Tradipitant2Completed2
DB01273Varenicline2Completed2
DB01273Varenicline2Unknown Status1
DB12512Verucerfont2Completed1
DB01593Zinc2Recruiting1
DB00909Zonisamide2Recruiting1
DB00909Zonisamide2Terminated1
DB01238Aripiprazole2 / 3Completed1
DB00181Baclofen2 / 3Completed2
DB01205Flumazenil2 / 3Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2 / 3Completed2
DB00704Naltrexone2 / 3Completed1
DB00396Progesterone2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate2 / 3Completed2
DB00273Topiramate2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB01273Varenicline2 / 3Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate3Completed1
DB01238Aripiprazole3Completed1
DB00181Baclofen3Completed2
DB00555Lamotrigine3Withdrawn1
DB01202Levetiracetam3Completed1
DB01356Lithium cation3Completed1
DB00657Mecamylamine3Completed1
DB06230Nalmefene3Completed5
DB06230Nalmefene3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone3Completed6
DB00704Naltrexone3Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone3Unknown Status1
DB00334Olanzapine3Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron3Completed1
DB12585Ondelopran3Completed1
DB00457Prazosin3Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine3Completed1
DB00273Topiramate3Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate3Unknown Status1
DB00273Topiramate3Withdrawn2
DB00313Valproic Acid3Completed2
DB00909Zonisamide3Recruiting1
DB00659Acamprosate4Completed4
DB00659Acamprosate4Terminated1
DB00659Acamprosate4Unknown Status2
DB06151Acetylcysteine4Recruiting1
DB00181Baclofen4Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Terminated1
DB12153Citicoline4Completed1
DB00822Disulfiram4Completed1
DB01126Dutasteride4Completed2
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed1
DB00472Fluoxetine4Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin4Recruiting1
DB01440Gamma hydroxybutyric acid4Completed1
DB04465Lactose4Completed1
DB00555Lamotrigine4Unknown Status1
DB00186Lorazepam4Recruiting1
DB00422Methylphenidate4Completed1
DB06230Nalmefene4Completed1
DB06230Nalmefene4Terminated1
DB00704Naltrexone4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone4Completed12
DB00704Naltrexone4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00704Naltrexone4Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone4Terminated2
DB00842Oxazepam4Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine4Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed1
DB09072Sodium oxybate4Completed1
DB00273Topiramate4Completed1
DB00273Topiramate4Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate4Unknown Status1
DB00620Triamcinolone4Completed1
DB00313Valproic Acid4Recruiting1
DB01273Varenicline4Terminated1
DB00909Zonisamide4Completed1
DB00659AcamprosateNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00190CarbidopaNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00215CitalopramNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00260CycloserineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01576DextroamphetamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00145GlycineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01235LevodopaNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00745ModafinilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB06230NalmefeneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00704NaltrexoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00704NaltrexoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00795SulfasalazineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01273VareniclineNot AvailableCompleted1