Alcohol Dependence

Also known as: Alcoholism / Alcohol Addiction / Alcoholic / Addiction, Alcohol / Chronic alcohol abuse / Alcohol abuse chronic / Dipsomania / Chronic alcoholism / Alcohol abuse, continuous drinking behaviour / Alcohol abuse, continuous drinking behavior / Alcohol dependence syndrome

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00659AcamprosateAcamprosate, also known by the brand name Campral™, is a drug used for treating alcohol dependence. Acamprosate is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination of attending support groups and abstinence from alcohol. Certain serious side effects include allergic reactions, irregular heartbeats, and low or high blood pressure, while less serious side effects include headaches, insomnia, and impotence. Acamprosate should not be taken by people with kidney problems or allergies to the drug.
DB01142DoxepinDoxepin is a dibenzoxepin-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Structurally similar to phenothiazines, TCAs contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, doxepin does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, doxepin exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as doxepin and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Doxepin has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than amitriptyline. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. When orally administered, doxepin may be used to treat depression and insomnia. Unlabeled indications of oral doxepin also include chronic and neuropathic pain, and anxiety. Doxepin may also be used as a second line agent to treat idiopathic urticaria. As a topical agent, doxepin may be used relieve itching in patients with certain types of eczema. It may be used for the management of moderate pruritus in adult patients with atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.
DB00472FluoxetineFluoxetine hydrochloride is the first agent of the class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine is a racemic mixture of the R- and S- enantiomers and are of equivalent pharmacologic activity. Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Fluoxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and in combination with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Fluoxetine is the most anorexic and stimulating SSRI.
DB06230NalmefeneNalmefene is a 6-methylene analogue of naltrexone and opioid system modulator but with no opioid activity [FDA Label]. It mediates a partial agonist effect on kappa receptors [A31301]. It is primarily used in the management of alcohol dependence in adult patients in conjunction with continuous psychosocial support focused on treatment adherence and reducing alcohol consumption [L1024] when it is exists as the hydrochloride dihydrate form under the trade name Selincro. Selincro is orally administered as tablets. Nalmefene works to reduce alcohol consumption in individuals by positive reward effect of alcohol which involves the opioid system, as well as the sedative and dysphoric properties of alcohol [A31301]. It is also indicated to prevent or reverse the effects of opioids, including respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension by acting on the opioid receptor as an antagonist [FDA Label] under the trade name Revex for intramuscular, intravenous and subcutaneous injection, where nalmefene hydrochloride is an active ingredient.
DB00704NaltrexoneDerivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of naloxone. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. [Wikipedia]. A combination product containing phentermine and topiramate extended-release called QSYMIA® is indicated for the management of obesity. On August 2013, an extended released formulation, marketed as Trokendi XR has been approved for the management of partial onset, tonic-clonic, and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome seizures.
DB00656TrazodoneA serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00659AcamprosateMetabotropic glutamate receptor 5target
DB00659AcamprosateProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
DB00659AcamprosateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00659AcamprosateGlutamate (NMDA) receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01142DoxepinSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01142DoxepinD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01142DoxepinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00472FluoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCYP2B proteinenzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00472FluoxetineSerum albumincarrier
DB00472FluoxetineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00472FluoxetinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00472Fluoxetine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00472FluoxetineCyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00472FluoxetineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4target
DB06230NalmefeneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB06230NalmefeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00704NaltrexoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneHCG20471, isoform CRA_ctarget
DB00704NaltrexoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00898Ethanol0Recruiting1
DB01276Exenatide0Recruiting1
DB02325Isopropyl Alcohol0Recruiting1
DB06230Nalmefene0Terminated1
DB00704Naltrexone0Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin0Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride0Recruiting1
DB00181Baclofen1Completed2
DB00215Citalopram1Completed1
DB00898Ethanol1Terminated1
DB12886GSK-15214981Completed2
DB01221Ketamine1Completed1
DB12341LY-24563021Completed1
DB01017Minocycline1Recruiting1
DB06230Nalmefene1Completed2
DB00704Naltrexone1Completed3
DB00904Ondansetron1Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin1Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06663Pasireotide1Completed1
DB12543Samidorphan1Completed1
DB11805Saracatinib1Recruiting1
DB01104Sertraline1Completed1
DB00906Tiagabine1Terminated1
DB00273Topiramate1Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate1 / 2Completed1
DB06151Acetylcysteine1 / 2Completed1
DB12338Carisbamate1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB12928GET-731 / 2Completed1
DB00704Naltrexone1 / 2Completed1
DB00704Naltrexone1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00457Prazosin1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00457Prazosin1 / 2Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate2Completed4
DB00714Apomorphine2Unknown Status1
DB00673Aprepitant2Completed2
DB00673Aprepitant2Terminated1
DB01238Aripiprazole2Completed1
DB00181Baclofen2Completed3
DB00181Baclofen2Terminated1
DB12299Bavisant2Withdrawn1
DB01156Bupropion2Completed1
DB12196CP-8660872Completed1
DB00215Citalopram2Completed1
DB00434Cyproheptadine2Completed1
DB01151Desipramine2Completed1
DB01075Diphenhydramine2Recruiting1
DB00822Disulfiram2Completed1
DB00590Doxazosin2Completed1
DB00590Doxazosin2Recruiting1
DB00476Duloxetine2Completed1
DB00898Ethanol2Completed1
DB01276Exenatide2Recruiting1
DB01039Fenofibrate2Completed1
DB00472Fluoxetine2Completed1
DB06717Fosaprepitant2Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2Completed2
DB11895Ghrelin2Completed1
DB00145Glycine2Completed1
DB02325Isopropyl Alcohol2Completed1
DB01221Ketamine2Terminated1
DB04465Lactose2Completed1
DB01202Levetiracetam2Completed1
DB01202Levetiracetam2Terminated1
DB00186Lorazepam2Completed1
DB12111MK-2122Completed1
DB00657Mecamylamine2Completed1
DB00834Mifepristone2Completed1
DB00834Mifepristone2Recruiting1
DB00370Mirtazapine2Completed2
DB00745Modafinil2Completed1
DB00704Naltrexone2Completed12
DB12220ORG-259352Terminated1
DB00334Olanzapine2Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron2Completed4
DB00904Ondansetron2Terminated1
DB00904Ondansetron2Unknown Status1
DB12585Ondelopran2Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin2Recruiting1
DB08883Perampanel2Suspended1
DB12572Pexacerfont2Completed1
DB01132Pioglitazone2Recruiting1
DB01132Pioglitazone2Terminated1
DB00457Prazosin2Unknown Status1
DB00230Pregabalin2Completed1
DB00571Propranolol2Completed1
DB11664Psilocybine2Recruiting1
DB11664Psilocybine2Unknown Status1
DB01224Quetiapine2Completed4
DB00734Risperidone2Completed1
DB01104Sertraline2Completed4
DB01104Sertraline2Terminated1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate2Completed5
DB00273Topiramate2Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate2Terminated2
DB00273Topiramate2Unknown Status1
DB12580Tradipitant2Completed2
DB00656Trazodone2Completed1
DB00313Valproic Acid2Completed1
DB01273Varenicline2Completed5
DB01273Varenicline2Unknown Status1
DB12512Verucerfont2Completed1
DB01080Vigabatrin2Terminated1
DB01392Yohimbine2Completed1
DB01593Zinc2Recruiting1
DB00909Zonisamide2Completed1
DB00909Zonisamide2Recruiting1
DB00909Zonisamide2Terminated1
DB01238Aripiprazole2 / 3Completed1
DB00181Baclofen2 / 3Completed3
DB01205Flumazenil2 / 3Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2 / 3Completed2
DB00704Naltrexone2 / 3Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00396Progesterone2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate2 / 3Completed2
DB00273Topiramate2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00313Valproic Acid2 / 3Completed1
DB01273Varenicline2 / 3Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate3Completed2
DB00659Acamprosate3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01238Aripiprazole3Completed1
DB01238Aripiprazole3Recruiting1
DB00181Baclofen3Completed2
DB00181Baclofen3Recruiting1
DB01373Calcium3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11093Calcium Citrate3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00475Chlordiazepoxide3Completed1
DB01151Desipramine3Completed1
DB00514Dextromethorphan3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00555Lamotrigine3Withdrawn1
DB01202Levetiracetam3Completed1
DB01356Lithium cation3Completed1
DB00657Mecamylamine3Completed1
DB06230Nalmefene3Completed5
DB06230Nalmefene3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01183Naloxone3Completed1
DB00704Naltrexone3Completed16
DB00704Naltrexone3Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone3Terminated1
DB00704Naltrexone3Unknown Status1
DB00334Olanzapine3Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron3Completed2
DB12585Ondelopran3Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin3Completed1
DB00107Oxytocin3Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00715Paroxetine3Completed1
DB00457Prazosin3Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine3Completed3
DB00273Topiramate3Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate3Unknown Status1
DB00273Topiramate3Withdrawn2
DB00313Valproic Acid3Completed2
DB01273Varenicline3Terminated1
DB00909Zonisamide3Recruiting1
DB00659Acamprosate4Completed7
DB00659Acamprosate4Terminated1
DB00659Acamprosate4Unknown Status3
DB06151Acetylcysteine4Recruiting1
DB01238Aripiprazole4Completed1
DB00181Baclofen4Completed1
DB11748Benfotiamine4Completed1
DB01156Bupropion4Completed1
DB01156Bupropion4Unknown Status1
DB00564Carbamazepine4Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Terminated1
DB12153Citicoline4Completed1
DB00822Disulfiram4Completed1
DB00822Disulfiram4Unknown Status1
DB01126Dutasteride4Completed2
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed2
DB00472Fluoxetine4Completed1
DB00472Fluoxetine4Unknown Status1
DB00996Gabapentin4Recruiting1
DB04465Lactose4Completed1
DB00555Lamotrigine4Unknown Status1
DB01202Levetiracetam4Completed1
DB00186Lorazepam4Completed1
DB00186Lorazepam4Recruiting1
DB01043Memantine4Completed1
DB00422Methylphenidate4Completed2
DB00683Midazolam4Withdrawn1
DB06230Nalmefene4Completed1
DB06230Nalmefene4Terminated1
DB00704Naltrexone4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone4Completed30
DB00704Naltrexone4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00704Naltrexone4Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone4Terminated2
DB00704Naltrexone4Unknown Status1
DB00184Nicotine4Completed2
DB00842Oxazepam4Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine4Completed1
DB00457Prazosin4Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00818Propofol4Withdrawn1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed2
DB00811Ribavirin4Completed1
DB01104Sertraline4Completed2
DB09072Sodium oxybate4Completed1
DB00421Spironolactone4Suspended1
DB00273Topiramate4Completed3
DB00273Topiramate4Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate4Unknown Status1
DB00620Triamcinolone4Completed1
DB00313Valproic Acid4Recruiting1
DB01273Varenicline4Terminated1
DB00909Zonisamide4Completed1
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid4Completed1
DB00659AcamprosateNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00201CaffeineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00190CarbidopaNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00215CitalopramNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00260CycloserineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01576DextroamphetamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00829DiazepamNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01075DiphenhydramineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01126DutasterideNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00898EthanolNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting2
DB00898EthanolNot AvailableCompleted4
DB00898EthanolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11895GhrelinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00145GlycineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB02325Isopropyl AlcoholNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB02325Isopropyl AlcoholNot AvailableCompleted1
DB02325Isopropyl AlcoholNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01235LevodopaNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00745ModafinilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB06230NalmefeneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00704NaltrexoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00704NaltrexoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00457PrazosinNot AvailableTerminated1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00795SulfasalazineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00599ThiopentalNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00313Valproic AcidNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01273VareniclineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01593ZincNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00909ZonisamideNot AvailableCompleted1