Allergic Rhinitis (AR)

Also known as: Rhinitis,Allergic / Rhinitis, Allergic / Allergic rhinitis / Rhinitis Allergic / Allergic rhinitis, cause unspecified / Allergic rhinitis, unspecified / Rhinallergosis / Rhinitis allergic NOS / Hay fever

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00835BrompheniramineHistamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria. [PubChem]
DB01222BudesonideBudesonide is a glucocorticoid used in the management of asthma, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic rhinitis. [PubChem] The extended release oral tablet, marketed as Uceris, was FDA approved on January 14, 2013 for the management of ulcerative colitis. Budesonide is provided as a mixture of two epimers (22R and 22S). Interestingly, the 22R form is two times more active than the 22S epimer. The two forms do not interconvert.
DB00748CarbinoxamineCarbinoxamine is a first generation antihistamine that competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. This antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors, leading to a reduction of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine HA-receptor binding. The product label for carbinoxamine as an over the counter cough and cold medicine is being modified to state "do not use" in children under 4 years of age in order to prevent and reduce misuse, as many unapproved carbinoxamine-containing preparations contained inappropriate labeling, which promoted unapproved uses (including management of congestion, cough, the common cold, and the use in children under 2 years of age), which can potentially cause serious health risks.
DB08936ChlorcyclizineChlorcyclizine is a first generation phenylpiperazine class antihistamine used to treat urticaria, rhinitis, pruritus, and other allergy symptoms. Chlorcyclizine also has some local anesthetic, anticholinergic, and antiserotonergic properties, and can be used as an antiemetic.
DB01114ChlorphenamineA histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than promethazine. [PubChem]
DB00283ClemastineAn ethanolamine-derivative, first generation histamine H1 antagonist used in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
DB00405DexbrompheniramineDexbrompheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria.
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateDexchlorpheniramine is the S-enantiomer of chlorpheniramine which is a 1st generation anti-histamine. Dexchlorpheniramine has more pharmacological activity than the R and so is more potent than the racemic mixture.
DB01075DiphenhydramineA histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
DB01146DiphenylpyralineDiphenylpyraline is an antihistamine. Antihistamines used in the treatment of allergy act by competing with histamine for H 1-receptor sites on effector cells. Antihistamines prevent, but do not reverse, responses mediated by histamine alone. Antihistamines antagonize, in varying degrees, most of the pharmacological effects of histamine, including urticaria and pruritus.
DB00180FlunisolideFlunisolide (marketed as AeroBid, Nasalide, Nasarel) is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis. The principle mechanism of action of flunisolide is to activate glucocorticoid receptors. It also has anti-inflammatory action.
DB00588Fluticasone propionateFluticasone propionate, a medium-potency synthetic corticosteroid, is used topically to relieve inflammatory and pruritic symptoms of dermatoses and psoriasis, intranasally to manage symptoms of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, and orally for the treatment of asthma. Fluticasone proprionate is marketed under several different brand names such as Flonase®. Fluticasone propionate is also available as a combination product of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate called Dymista™. Dymista™ is indicated in patients over 12 years old for symptomatic relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
DB00741HydrocortisoneThe main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. [PubChem]
DB01106LevocabastineLevocabastine is a selective second-generation H1-receptor antagonist used for allergic conjunctivitis. Levocabastine was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1979.
DB06691MepyramineMepyramine (also known as pyrilamine) is a first generation antihistamine, targeting the H1 receptor. However, it rapidly permeates the brain and so often causes drowsiness as a side effect. It is used in over-the-counter combination products for colds and menstrual symptoms.
DB00764MometasoneMometasone is a medium-potency synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Studies in asthmatic patients have demonstrated that mometasone provides a favorable ratio of topical to systemic activity due to its primary local effect along with the extensive hepatic metabolism and the lack of active metabolites. Though effective for the treatment of asthma, glucocorticoids do not affect asthma symptoms immediately. Maximum improvement in symptoms following inhaled administration of mometasone furoate may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
DB00635PrednisoneA synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the liver. [PubChem]
DB11614RupatadineRupatadine is a dual histamine H1 receptor and platelet activating factor receptor antagonist that is used for symptomatic relief in seasonal and perennial rhinitis as well as chronic spontaneous urticaria. It was approved for marketing in Canada under the tradename Rupall and comes in tablet formulation for adult use and liquid formulation for pediatric use.
DB00620TriamcinoloneA glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00835BrompheniramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00835BrompheniramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00835BrompheniramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00835BrompheniramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00835BrompheniramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00835BrompheniramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00835BrompheniramineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01222BudesonideGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01222BudesonideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00748CarbinoxamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08936ChlorcyclizineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01114ChlorphenamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01114ChlorphenamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01114ChlorphenamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01114ChlorphenamineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01114ChlorphenamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01114ChlorphenamineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01114ChlorphenamineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01114ChlorphenamineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01114ChlorphenamineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01114ChlorphenamineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00283ClemastineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00283ClemastineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00283ClemastineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00405DexbrompheniramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateSolute carrier family 22 member 1carrier
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateSolute carrier family 22 member 2carrier
DB09555Dexchlorpheniramine maleateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01075DiphenhydramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01146DiphenylpyralineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01146DiphenylpyralineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00180FlunisolideCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00180FlunisolideGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00180FlunisolideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00588Fluticasone propionateCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00588Fluticasone propionateCytosolic phospholipase A2target
DB00588Fluticasone propionateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00588Fluticasone propionateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00588Fluticasone propionateProgesterone receptortarget
DB00588Fluticasone propionateMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB00588Fluticasone propionateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00588Fluticasone propionateCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneAnnexin A1target
DB00741HydrocortisoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00741HydrocortisoneSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00741HydrocortisoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00741HydrocortisoneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00741HydrocortisoneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00741HydrocortisoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2target
DB00741Hydrocortisone3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1target
DB01106LevocabastineNeurotensin receptor type 2target
DB01106LevocabastineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB06691MepyramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB06691MepyramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB06691MepyramineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB06691MepyramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00764MometasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00764MometasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00764MometasoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00635PrednisoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00635PrednisoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneSerum albumincarrier
DB00635PrednisoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1target
DB11614RupatadineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB11614RupatadineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB11614RupatadineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB11614RupatadineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB11614RupatadinePlatelet-activating factor receptortarget
DB11614RupatadineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00620TriamcinoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00620TriamcinoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00620TriamcinoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneCholinesteraseenzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB06151Acetylcysteine1Completed1
DB00972Azelastine1Completed2
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionate1Completed1
DB01075Diphenhydramine1Completed1
DB00366Doxylamine1Completed1
DB11823Esketamine1Completed1
DB00950Fexofenadine1Completed1
DB00588Fluticasone propionate1Completed6
DB12806GSK-10047231Completed1
DB05381Histamine1Completed1
DB11320Histamine1Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen1Completed1
DB09054Idelalisib1Completed1
DB00465Ketorolac1Completed1
DB06282Levocetirizine1Completed1
DB00764Mometasone1Completed2
DB00043Omalizumab1Completed1
DB00935Oxymetazoline1Completed2
DB05357Phleum pratense pollen1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00635Prednisone1Completed1
DB11251Tocopherol1Completed1
DB00163Vitamin E1Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol1 / 2Completed1
DB01146Diphenylpyraline1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB10385Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen2Withdrawn1
DB00972Azelastine2Completed2
DB01222Budesonide2Completed1
DB00341Cetirizine2Completed2
DB01114Chlorphenamine2Terminated1
DB00751Epinastine2Completed1
DB12011Fevipiprant2Completed1
DB00950Fexofenadine2Completed2
DB00588Fluticasone propionate2Completed3
DB00588Fluticasone propionate2Recruiting1
DB12806GSK-10047232Completed1
DB12137GSK-2560662Completed2
DB11650HT-07122Completed1
DB12929JNJ-392206752Completed1
DB06282Levocetirizine2Completed1
DB00455Loratadine2Completed1
DB00471Montelukast2Completed1
DB11900OC-4592Completed2
DB00935Oxymetazoline2Completed1
DB12201PF-036547462Completed1
DB12360PF-036547642Completed1
DB00852Pseudoephedrine2Completed3
DB11658QAV-6802Completed1
DB00277Theophylline2Completed1
DB05389WF102Completed1
DB00062Human Serum Albumin2 / 3Active Not Recruiting2
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionate3Completed3
DB00443Betamethasone3Completed1
DB00443Betamethasone3Unknown Status1
DB01222Budesonide3Completed1
DB00341Cetirizine3Completed2
DB01410Ciclesonide3Completed3
DB00967Desloratadine3Completed4
DB00967Desloratadine3Unknown Status1
DB08906Fluticasone furoate3Completed1
DB00588Fluticasone propionate3Completed3
DB06282Levocetirizine3Completed4
DB00764Mometasone3Not Yet Recruiting2
DB00471Montelukast3Completed1
DB00860Prednisolone3Completed1
DB00860Prednisolone3Unknown Status1
DB00620Triamcinolone3Completed1
DB00972Azelastine4Completed1
DB00972Azelastine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00972Azelastine4Recruiting2
DB00972Azelastine4Withdrawn1
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionate4Completed1
DB11897Beclomethasone dipropionate4Completed1
DB11591Bilastine4Completed2
DB01222Budesonide4Completed1
DB00341Cetirizine4Completed4
DB00341Cetirizine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Unknown Status1
DB01410Ciclesonide4Completed3
DB00967Desloratadine4Completed1
DB00950Fexofenadine4Completed5
DB08906Fluticasone furoate4Completed2
DB08906Fluticasone furoate4Withdrawn1
DB00588Fluticasone propionate4Completed5
DB00588Fluticasone propionate4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00588Fluticasone propionate4Recruiting2
DB00588Fluticasone propionate4Withdrawn1
DB06282Levocetirizine4Completed5
DB00455Loratadine4Completed2
DB00764Mometasone4Completed2
DB00471Montelukast4Completed2
DB00768Olopatadine4Withdrawn1
DB00043Omalizumab4Completed1
DB00935Oxymetazoline4Completed1
DB00935Oxymetazoline4Withdrawn1
DB00457Prazosin4Completed1
DB00938Salmeterol4Completed1
DB11897Beclomethasone dipropionateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01222BudesonideNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB10401Dermatophagoides pteronyssinusNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01146DiphenylpyralineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00983FormoterolNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB05381HistamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11320HistamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11858Leukotriene D4Not AvailableCompleted1
DB00764MometasoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00043OmalizumabNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00043OmalizumabNot AvailableUnknown Status1