Identification

Name
Clomipramine
Accession Number
DB01242  (APRD00253, DB07600)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Clomipramine, the 3-chloro analog of imipramine, is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, clomipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, clomipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as clomipramine, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Clomipramine may be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy, autistic disorder, trichotillomania, onchophagia, stuttering, premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. Clomipramine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-(3-chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamine
  • 3-(3-chloro-5H-dibenzo[b,F]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine
  • 3-Chloroimipramine
  • Chlorimipramine
  • Clomipramina
  • Clomipraminum
  • Monochlorimipramine
External IDs
NSC-169865
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Clomipramine hydrochloride2LXW0L6GWJ17321-77-6WIMWMKZEIBHDTH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act ClomipramineTablet10 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
Act ClomipramineTablet50 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
Act ClomipramineTablet25 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
AnafranilCapsule75 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1989-09-292002-06-30Us
AnafranilTablet50 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
AnafranilTablet25 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1973-12-31Not applicableCanada
AnafranilCapsule50 mg/1OralSpecGx LLC2011-03-18Not applicableUs
AnafranilCapsule50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1989-09-292012-06-30Us
AnafranilCapsule25 mg/1OralSpecGx LLC2011-03-18Not applicableUs
AnafranilCapsule25 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1989-09-292011-06-30Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Altius-clomipramineTablet10 mgOralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Altius-clomipramineTablet50 mgOralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Altius-clomipramineTablet25 mgOralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 10mgTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 25mgTablet25 mgOralApotex Corporation1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 50mgTablet50 mgOralApotex Corporation1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Clomipramine HClCapsule25 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals LLC2018-10-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine HClCapsule75 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals LLC2018-10-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine HClCapsule50 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals LLC2018-10-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine HydrochlorideCapsule50 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2018-05-03Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Anapramine / Hydiphen (Arzneimittelwerk Dresden)
Categories
UNII
NUV44L116D
CAS number
303-49-1
Weight
Average: 314.852
Monoisotopic: 314.154976453
Chemical Formula
C19H23ClN2
InChI Key
GDLIGKIOYRNHDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H23ClN2/c1-21(2)12-5-13-22-18-7-4-3-6-15(18)8-9-16-10-11-17(20)14-19(16)22/h3-4,6-7,10-11,14H,5,8-9,12-13H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
(3-{14-chloro-2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

May be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include: depression, panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy (limited evidence), autistic disorder (limited evidence), trichotillomania (limited evidence), onchophagia (limited evidence), stuttering (limited evidence), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is the 3-chloro derivative of Imipramine. It was thought that tricyclic antidepressants work exclusively by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. However, this response occurs immediately, yet mood does not lift for around two weeks. It is now thought that changes occur in receptor sensitivity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, a part of the brain involved in emotions. Presynaptic receptors are affected: α1 and β1 receptors are sensitized, α2 receptors are desensitized (leading to increased noradrenaline production). Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain.

Mechanism of action

Clomipramine is a strong, but not completely selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI), as the active main metabolite desmethyclomipramine acts preferably as an inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake. α1-receptor blockage and β-down-regulation have been noted and most likely play a role in the short term effects of clomipramine. A blockade of sodium-channels and NDMA-receptors might, as with other tricyclics, account for its effect in chronic pain, in particular the neuropathic type.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
antagonist
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UGlutathione S-transferase P
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Well absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration. Bioavailability is approximately 50% orally due to extensive first-pass metabolism. Bioavailability is not affected by food. Peak plasma concentrations occurred 2-6 hours following oral administration of a single 50 mg dose. The peak plasma concentration ranged from 56 ng/mL to 154 mg/mL (mean, 92 ng/mL). There are large interindividual variations in plasma concentrations occur, partly due to genetic differences in clomipramine metabolism. On average, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved in 1-2 weeks following multiple dose oral administration. Smoking appears to lower the steady-state plasma concentration of clomipramine, but not its active metabolite desmethylclomipramine.

Volume of distribution

~ 17 L/kg (range: 9-25 L/kg). Clomipramine is capable of distributing into the cerebrospinal fluid, the brain, and into breast milk.

Protein binding

Clomipramine is approximately 97-98% bound to plasma proteins, principally to albumin and possibly to α1-acid glycoprotein. Desmethylclomipramine is 97-99% bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver. The main active metabolite is desmethylclomipramine, which is formed by N-demethylation of clomipramine via CYP2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Other metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates are also produced. Other metabolites of clomipramine include 8-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 8-hydroxylation, 2-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 2-hydroxylation, and clomipramine N-oxide formed by N-oxidation. Desmethylclomipramine is further metabolized to 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine and didesmethylclomipramine, which are formed by 8-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively. 8-Hydroxyclomipramine and 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine are pharmacologically active; however, their clinical contribution remains unknown.

Route of elimination

Urine (51-60%) and feces via biliary elimination (24-32%)

Half life

Following oral administration of a single 150 mg dose of clomipramine, the average elimination half-life of clomipramine was 32 hours (range: 19-37 hours) and of desmethylclomipramine was 69 hours (range: 54-77 hours). Elimination half-life may vary substantially with different doses due to saturable kinetics (i.e. metabolism).

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Signs and symptoms vary in severity depending upon factors such as the amount of drug absorbed, the age of the patient, and the time elapsed since drug ingestion. Critical manifestations of overdose include cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, convulsions, and CNS depression including coma. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of tricyclic toxicity. In U.S. clinical trials, 2 deaths occurred in 12 reported cases of acute overdosage with Anafranil either alone or in combination with other drugs. One death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 7000 mg. The second death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 5750 mg. Side effects include: sedation, hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes, heart failure, impaired memory and delirium, and precipitation of hypomanic or manic episodes in bipolar depression. Withdrawal symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety, and insomnia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4(A;A)A AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not Available2549delAEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not AvailableA alleleEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2Not Available681G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*3Not Available636G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2ANot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2BNot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*4Not Available1A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*5Not Available1297C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*6Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*7Not Available19294T>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*22Not Available557G>C / 991A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*24Not Available99C>T / 991A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*35Not Available12662A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effectsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableG alleleEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not Available3877G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2D6 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clomipramine.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneClomipramine may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment, grapefruit can modify serum levels of clomipramine and its metabolite desmethyl-clomipramine.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015372
KEGG Drug
D00811
KEGG Compound
C06918
PubChem Compound
2801
PubChem Substance
46505157
ChemSpider
2699
BindingDB
77970
ChEBI
47780
ChEMBL
CHEMBL415
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000742
PharmGKB
PA449048
IUPHAR
2398
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
CXX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Clomipramine
ATC Codes
N06AA04 — Clomipramine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.28 — Tricyclics and Other Norepinephrine-reuptake Inhibitors
PDB Entries
2q6h / 2qei / 4mma / 6g9i
FDA label
Download (712 KB)
MSDS
Download (74.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentDepression1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Sciatica1
2CompletedTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Abic Ltd.
  • Basel Pharmaceuticals Div Ciba Geigy Corp.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Gallipot
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Novartis AG
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmacy Service Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandoz
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral75 mg/1
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clomipramine hcl powder17.88USD g
Anafranil 25 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 75 mg capsule13.24USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 75 mg capsule1.55USD capsule
Clomipramine 75 mg capsule1.33USD capsule
Clomipramine 50 mg capsule1.01USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 25 mg capsule0.88USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg Tablet0.77USD tablet
Clomipramine 25 mg capsule0.75USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 50 mg capsule0.57USD capsule
Apo-Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Anafranil 25 mg Tablet0.42USD tablet
Anafranil 10 mg Tablet0.31USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)191.5-192Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.
boiling point (°C)160-170 °C at 3.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility0.294 mg/LNot Available
logP5.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0144 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.04ALOGPS
logP4.88ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity95.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9843
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9793
Caco-2 permeable+0.8391
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8573
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.852
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7875
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8374
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7971
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6074
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8735
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8971
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9967
Rat acute toxicity2.7426 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.889
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8029
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-066r-6391000000-e57dc447a97807ce527a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052r-9010000000-77a0afe2d49df71431d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-2009000000-a1cc70dad4bb4c19ab7b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a9af3369f8d6da434fd0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052r-9000000000-3f1941447bc096ea9d73
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-9010000000-c6b5c5a56ac456cd8845
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9010000000-8b5307526ea875a06881
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9010000000-98746d4db184914ce871
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9310000000-194486cca11709cd1b80
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9600000000-da861dd5252aaff30e89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-6900000000-efdead8e50e8b700d4bd
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-558a68c9d4919e7945a2
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-489c71d87d96f5bafd40
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009002000-3318f523b446a8d9d68e
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-8b8a1763c5358415b2b0

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring. Azepine is an unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzazepines
Sub Class
Dibenzazepines
Direct Parent
Dibenzazepines
Alternative Parents
Alkyldiarylamines / Azepines / Benzenoids / Aryl chlorides / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dibenzazepine / Alkyldiarylamine / Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine / Azepine / Benzenoid / Aryl halide / Aryl chloride / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Azacycle
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
dibenzoazepine (CHEBI:47780)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Alvarez JC, Gluck N, Arnulf I, Quintin P, Leboyer M, Pecquery R, Launay JM, Perez-Diaz F, Spreux-Varoquaux O: Decreased platelet serotonin transporter sites and increased platelet inositol triphosphate levels in patients with unipolar depression: effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Dec;66(6):617-24. [PubMed:10613618]
  2. Borkowska A, Pilaczynska E, Araszkiewicz A, Rybakowski J: [The effect of sertraline on cognitive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder]. Psychiatr Pol. 2002 Nov-Dec;36(6 Suppl):289-95. [PubMed:12647451]
  3. Suhara T, Takano A, Sudo Y, Ichimiya T, Inoue M, Yasuno F, Ikoma Y, Okubo Y: High levels of serotonin transporter occupancy with low-dose clomipramine in comparative occupancy study with fluvoxamine using positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;60(4):386-91. [PubMed:12695316]
  4. Larsen AK, Brennum LT, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C, Halldin C, Andersen PH: Selectivity of (3)H-MADAM binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters in vitro and in vivo in mice; correlation with behavioural effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(6):1015-23. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [PubMed:14993096]
  5. Malizia AL, Melichar JM, Brown DJ, Gunn RN, Reynolds A, Jones T, Nutt DJ: Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo. J Psychopharmacol. 1997;11(3):279-81. [PubMed:9305421]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  7. Gillman PK: Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;151(6):737-48. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [PubMed:17471183]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Hentall ID, Kurle PJ, White TR: Correlations between serotonin level and single-cell firing in the rat's nucleus raphe magnus. Neuroscience. 2000;95(4):1081-8. [PubMed:10682715]
  2. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670]
  3. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155]
  4. Trifunovic RD, Brodie MS: The effects of clomipramine on the excitatory action of ethanol on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jan;276(1):34-40. [PubMed:8558452]
  5. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation...
Gene Name
HTR2B
Uniprot ID
P41595
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Molecular Weight
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  2. Jungkun G, Kuss HJ, Gsell W: Long-term effects of tricyclic antidepressants on norepinephrine kinetics in humans. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2001;108(3):349-62. [PubMed:11341486]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Sawicki J, Kuzma M, Jagiello J: [Tricyclic antidepressants as inhibitors of brain glutathione-S-transferase]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001 Dec;11(66):472-5. [PubMed:11899840]
  2. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Kuzma M, Gutowicz M, Kazmierczak B, Sawicki J: Glutathione S-transferase pi as a target for tricyclic antidepressants in human brain. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51(1):207-12. [PubMed:15094841]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  3. The P450 Program [Link]
  4. Cytochrome P450 Interactions [File]
  5. Clomipramine FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  3. PDR, Anafranil [Link]
  4. Clomipramine FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. The P450 Program [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 12, 2018 07:28