Identification

Name
Vitamin D
Accession Number
DB11094
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

Vitamin D ultimately comprises a group of lipid-soluble secosteroids responsible for a variety of biological effects, some of which include increasing the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. With reference to human use, there are 2 main forms of vitamin D - vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). When non-specific references are made about 'vitamin d', the references are usually about the use of vitamin D3 and/or D2.

Vitamin D3 and D2 require hydroxylation in order to become biologically active in the human body. Since vitamin D can be endogenously synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sufficient quantities of sunlight, vitamin D functions like a hormone on vitamin D receptors to regulate calcium in opposition to parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D plays an essential physiological role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and metabolism. There are several different vitamin D supplements that are given to treat or to prevent osteomalacia and rickets, or to meet the daily criteria of vitamin D consumption.

Synonyms
  • Calciferol
  • Vitamin D NOS
  • Vitamin D, unspecified form
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OstoforteCapsule50000 unitOralMerck Ltd.1951-12-312007-10-31Canada
Radiostol Solution 100000iu/mlLiquid100000 unitOralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Omega-3 Well PackKitOralTmig, Inc.2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
D Caps 400 UnitsCapsule400 unitOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Theraplex D Tab 250unitTablet250 unitOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin DTablet400 unitOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.2000-04-032002-07-18Canada
Vitamin D 1000 Iu TabletsTablet1000 unitOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.1988-12-312008-07-17Canada
Vitamin D 200unitCapsule200 unitOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1972-12-311999-08-13Canada
Vitamin D 400 I.U. TabletsTablet400 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182001-09-12Canada
Vitamin D Tab 1000unitTablet1000 unitOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1974-12-312009-08-04Canada
Vitamin D Tab 400unit ChewableTablet400 unitOralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Vitamine DCapsule195 unitOralPharmalab Inc.1995-12-311997-08-08Canada
Vitamine D 1000 U.I.Tablet1000 unitOralGamme Nature1986-12-312008-07-31Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
50 PlusVitamin D (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic Acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin E (20 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada
A and D OintmentVitamin D (213 unit) + Vitamin A (1500 unit)OintmentTopicalSchering Plough1951-12-312002-07-12Canada
A D Calcium TabVitamin D (400 unit) + Calcium (126 mg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit)TabletOralStar Pharmaceuticals, Llc1979-12-311999-07-21Canada
A-D Calcium CapVitamin D (133 unit) + Calcium (170 mg) + Vitamin A (2500 unit)CapsuleOralVitalab1990-12-312005-07-12Canada
Ad & Calcium CapVitamin D (133 unit) + Calcium (170 mg) + Vitamin A (2500 unit)CapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1977-12-312001-10-15Canada
Ad Calcium CapVitamin D (133 unit) + Calcium (170 mg) + Vitamin A (2500 unit)CapsuleOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1979-12-311997-08-11Canada
Adc ComprimesVitamin D (200 unit) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Vitamin A acetate (5000 unit)TabletOralBio Vita1990-12-311996-09-09Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaVitamin D (66.67 unit) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Am CapsVitamin D (100 unit) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (3 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.2 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.90 mg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg) + Vitamin A (1250 unit)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals Company1998-10-012002-11-20Canada
Anaplex TabVitamin D (133.33 unit) + Ascorbic acid (40 mg) + Calcium (160 mg) + Iodine (.05 mg) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg) + Nicotinamide (30 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (15 mg) + Phosphorus (75.33 mg) + Potassium Chloride (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (40 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (2000 unit)TabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1975-12-311996-10-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CitraNatal 90 DHAVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Citrate (160 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (90 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium triiodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboprine (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2010-02-01Not applicableUs
CitraNatal 90 DHAVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Citrate (159 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous gluconate (5 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (85 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (4.54 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2014-04-11Not applicableUs
CitraNatal DHAVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Citrate (125 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2007-11-20Not applicableUs
CitraNatal RxVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Citrate (124 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2014-08-11Not applicableUs
CitraNatal RxVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Citrate (125 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2007-11-26Not applicableUs
DermacinRx FoliPlus DVitamin D (83.325 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralPure Tek Corporation2016-07-15Not applicableUs
DermacinRx PureFolixVitamin D (125 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1)TabletOralPure Tek Corporation2015-11-03Not applicableUs
FolixapureVitamin D (125 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1)TabletOralShoreline Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-05-13Not applicableUs
Multi-VitaminVitamin D (360 [iU]/5mL) + Ascorbic acid (54 mg/5mL) + Cyanocobalamin (.00405 mg/5mL) + Niacin (12.2 mg/5mL) + Pyridoxine (.945 mg/5mL) + Riboflavin (1.08 mg/5mL) + Thiamine (.842 mg/5mL) + Vitamin A (2250 [iU]/5mL) + Vitamin E (13.5 [iU]/5mL)LiquidOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Multi-VitaminVitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (4.5 ug/1) + Fluoride ion (.5 mg/1) + Folic Acid (.3 mg/1) + Niacin (13.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.05 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.2 mg/1) + Thiamine (1.05 mg/1) + Vitamin A (2500 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (15 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralBoca Pharmacal, Inc.2011-12-282016-10-28Us
Categories
UNII
9VU1KI44GP
CAS number
1406-16-2
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Vitamin D is indicated for use in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism, refractory rickets (also known as vitamin D resistant rickets), and familial hypophosphatemia [Label].

Pharmacodynamics

The in vivo synthesis of the predominant two biologically active metabolites of vitamin D occurs in two steps. The first hydroxylation of vitamin D3 or D2 occurs in the liver to yield 25-hydroxyvitamin D while the second hydroxylation happens in the kidneys to give 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [Label]. These vitamin D metabolites subsequently facilitate the active absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine, serving to increase serum calcium and phosphate levels sufficiently to allow bone mineralization [Label]. Conversely, these vitamin D metabolites also assist in mobilizing calcium and phosphate from bone and likely increase the reabsorption of calcium and perhaps also of phosphate via the renal tubules [Label]. There exists a period of 10 to 24 hours between the administration of vitamin D and the initiation of its action in the body due to the necessity of synthesis of the active vitamin D metabolites in the liver and kidneys [Label]. It is parathyroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of such metabolism at the level of the kidneys [Label].

Mechanism of action

Most individuals naturally generate adequate amounts of vitamin D through ordinary dietary intake of vitamin D (in some foods like eggs, fish, and cheese) and natural photochemical conversion of the vitamin D3 precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin via exposure to sunlight [6].

Conversely, vitamin D deficiency can often occur from a combination of insufficient exposure to sunlight, inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D, genetic defects with endogenous vitamin D receptor, or even severe liver or kidney disease [1]. Such deficiency is known for resulting in conditions like rickets or osteomalacia, all of which reflect inadequate mineralization of bone, enhanced compensatory skeletal demineralization, resultant decreased calcium ion blood concentrations, and increases in the production and secretin of parathyroid hormone [2]. Increases in parathyroid hormone stimulates the mobilization of skeletal calcium and the renal excretion of phosphorus[2]. This enhanced mobilization of skeletal calcium leads towards porotic bone conditions [2].

Ordinarily, while vitamin D3 is made naturally via photochemical processes in the skin, both itself and vitamin D2 can be found in various food and pharmaceutical sources as dietary supplements. The principal biological function of vitamin D is the maintenance of normal levels of serum calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream by enhancing the efficacy of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet [2]. At the liver, vitamin D3 or D2 is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and then finally to the primary active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney via further hydroxylation [2, 1]. This final metabolite binds to endogenous vitamin d receptors, which results in a variety of regulatory roles - including maintaining calcium balance, the regulation of parathyroid hormone, the promotion of the renal reabsorption of calcium, increased intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and increased calcium and phosphorus mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone to plasma to maintain balanced levels of each in bone and the plasma [2, 1].

TargetActionsOrganism
UVitamin D3 receptorNot AvailableHuman
UVitamin D-binding proteinNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Vitamin D3 and D2 are readily absorbed from the small intestine (proximal or distal) [2, 1].

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Some studies suggest vitamin D3 demonstrates protein binding of 50-80% [1] while others discuss vitamin D2 having >99.8% protein binding [2].

Metabolism

In the liver, vitamin D3 and D2 are hydroxylated to calcidiol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) [1] and ercalcidiol (25-hydroxyergocalciferol) [2], respectively, by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase. At the level of the kidney, calcidiol and ercalcidiol are hydroxylated to yield calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1] and ercalcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol) [2], the primary biologically active forms of vitamin D3 and D2 respectively, by the enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase.

Route of elimination

The primary excretion route of vitamin D is via the bile into the feces [3].

Half life

Although certain studies suggest the half-life of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 may be approximately 15 hours, the half-life of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 appears to have a half-life of about 15 days [7]. Intriguingly however, the half-lives of any particular administration of vitamin d can vary and in general the half-lives of vitamin D2 metabolites have been demonstrated to be shorter overall than vitamin D3 half-lives with this being affected by vitamin d binding protein concentrations and genotype in particular individuals [4].

Clearance

Some studies propose an estimated clearance rate for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D as 31 +/- 4 ml/min in healthy adults [5].

Toxicity

The use of pharmacological or nutraceutical vitamin d and/or even excessive dietary intake of vitamin d is contraindicated in patients with hypercalcemia, malabsorption syndrome, abnormal sensitivity to the toxic effects of vitamin d, and hypervitaminosis D [Label].

Hypersensitivity to vitamin d is one plausible etiologic factor in infants with idiopathic hypercalcemia - a case in which vitamin d use must be strictly restricted [Label].

As vitamin d intake is available via fortified foods, dietary supplements, and clinical drug sources, serum concentrations and therapeutic dosages should be reviewed regularly and readjusted as soon as there is clinical improvement [Label]. Dosage levels are required to be individualized on an individual patient by patient basis as caution must be exercised to prevent the presence of too much vitamin d in the body and the various potentially serious toxic effects associated with such circumstances [Label].

In particular, the range between therapeutic and toxic doses is quite narrow in vitamin d resistant rickets [Label]. When high therapeutic doses are used, progress should be followed with frequent blood calcium determinations [Label].

When treating hypoparathyroidism, intravenous calcium, parathyroid hormone, and/or dihydrotachysterol may be required [Label].

Maintenance of normal serum phosphorus levels by dietary phosphate restriction and/or administration of aluminum gels as intestinal phosphate binders in those patients with hyperphosphatemia as frequently seen in renal osteodystrophy is essential to prevent metastatic calcification [Label].

Mineral oil interferes with the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins, including vitamin d preparations [Label].

The administration of thiazide diuretics to hypoparathyroid patients who are concurrently being treated with vitamin d can result in hypercalcemia [Label].

At this time, no long term animal studies have been performed to evaluate vitamin potential for carcinogens, mutagenesis, or fertility [Label].

As various animal reproduction studies have demonstrated fetal abnormalities in several species associated with hypervitaminosis D, the use of vitamin d in excess of the recommended dietary allowance during normal pregnancy should be avoided [Label]. The safety in excess of 400 USP units of vitamin d daily during pregnancy has not been established [Label]. The abnormalities observed are similar to the supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome described in infants that is characterized by supravalvular aortic stenosis, elfin facies, and mental retardation [Label].

In a nursing mother given large doses of vitamin D, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol appeared in the milk and caused hypercalcemia in her child. Caution is subsequently required when contemplating the use of vitamin d in a nursing woman, and the necessity of monitoring infants' serum calcium concentration if vitamin d is administered to a breastfeeding woman [Label].

Adverse reactions associated with the use of vitamin d are primarily linked to having hypervitaminosis D occurring [FDA Lanel]. In particular, hypervitaminosis D is characterized by effects specific effects on specific organ systems. At the renal system, hypervitaminosis D can cause impairment of renal function with polyuria, nocturne, polydipsia, hypercalciuria, reversible asotemia, hypertension, nephrocalcinosis, generalized vascular calcification, or even irreversible renal insufficiency which may result in death [Label]. Elsewhere, hypervitaminosis D can also cause CNS mental retardation [Label]. At the level of soft tissues, it can widespread calcification of the soft tissues, including the heart, blood vessels, renal tubules, and lungs [Label]. In the skeletal system, bone demineralization (osteoporosis) in adults can occur while a decline in the average rate of linear growth and increased mineralization of bones, dwarfism, vague aches, stiffness, and weakness can occur in infants and children [Label]. Finally, hypervitaminosis D can also lead to nausea, anorexia, and constipation at the gastrointestinal level as well as mild acidosis, anemia, or weight loss via metabolic processes [Label].

The LD(50) in animals is unknown [Label].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin D.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenzthiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Benzthiazide.Approved
BudesonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Budesonide.Approved
Calcium CarbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Carbonate is combined with Vitamin D.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CyclopenthiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EpitizideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Epitizide.Experimental
Fluticasone propionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of hypercalcemia can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Vitamin D.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
IndapamideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Indapamide.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Vitamin D can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Metolazone.Approved
Mineral oilMineral oil can cause a decrease in the absorption of Vitamin D resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Vet Approved
PolythiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Polythiazide.Approved
QuinethazoneThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Quinethazone.Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Vitamin D is combined with Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [PubMed:15531486]
  2. DeLuca HF: Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1689S-96S. [PubMed:15585789]
  3. DeLuca HF: Metabolism of vitamin D: current status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Nov;29(11):1258-70. [PubMed:187053]
  4. Jones KS, Assar S, Harnpanich D, Bouillon R, Lambrechts D, Prentice A, Schoenmakers I: 25(OH)D2 half-life is shorter than 25(OH)D3 half-life and is influenced by DBP concentration and genotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Sep;99(9):3373-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1714. Epub 2014 Jun 2. [PubMed:24885631]
  5. 2. (1984). In Vitamin D: Basic and Clinical Aspects (pp. 81). Martinus Nijhoff Publishing. [ISBN:978-1-4612-9793-2]
  6. Vitamin D Wikipedia Entry [Link]
  7. Vitamin D Supplementation: An Update [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911113
Wikipedia
Vitamin_D
AHFS Codes
  • 88:16.00 — Vitamin D
FDA label
Download (175 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D1
0CompletedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Breast1
0CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
1Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticHyperparathyroidism1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Women / Estrogen Receptor Positive / Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Sensitivity1
1CompletedDiagnosticBone destruction1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchDeficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedPreventionGastrointestinal Cancers / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Prostate Cancer1
1CompletedPreventionPhysiological Effects of Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentSarcopenia / Strength, Muscle1
1CompletedTreatmentSolid Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
1RecruitingTreatmentSarcopenia1
1WithdrawnOtherHepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Cirrhosis1
1, 2CompletedPreventionBiomarker Change Linked to Breast Cancer1
1, 2CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Autoimmune / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentBone Diseases / Cancer, Breast1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedNot AvailableDeficiency, Vitamin D / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionRespiratory Tract Infections (RTI) / Vitamin D1
2CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinoconjunctivitis1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast3
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Heart Failure (CHF)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentEarly Stage Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB)1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentBone destruction1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Neurocognitive Dysfunction1
2RecruitingPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2RecruitingPreventionNeurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)1
2RecruitingPreventionBone destruction / Osteopenia1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone Metabolism / Primary Hyperparathyroidism1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentCervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancers / Uterine Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone destruction / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone destruction1
2TerminatedPreventionD Vitamin Deficiency Patients1
2Unknown StatusPreventionSickle Cell Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdvanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Hepatitis C Infection1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHypovitaminosis D / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentOptic Neuritis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPeritoneal dialysis therapy1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2, 3CompletedPreventionImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Hypercalcemia / Primary Hyperparathyroidism1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAllergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergilloses1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAllergies1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCrohns Disease1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentCalcium Nephrolithiasis / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCancers / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Fracture Bone1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionHeart Failure, Unspecified1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchDeficiency, Vitamin D1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3CompletedPreventionBone destruction / Bone Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Colonic Neoplasms / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / Neoplasms, Breast / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionComplications, Pregnancy / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedPreventionHypovitaminosis D1
3CompletedPreventionMigraine According to International Headache Society (IHS) Criteria (ICHD-II)1
3CompletedPreventionRisperidone-induced Hyperprolactinemia1
3CompletedPreventionVitamin D Status During Pregnancy / Vitamin D3 Deficiency1
3CompletedPreventionBone destruction1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
3CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Heart Failure, Unspecified1
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrheal Illnesses / Growth Faltering / Respiratory Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
3CompletedTreatmentProteinuria / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentSmear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentBone destruction1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
3RecruitingPreventionDisseminated Sclerosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyps1
3RecruitingTreatmentCutaneous Malignant Melanoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
3RecruitingTreatmentOvulation induction therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
3TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hyperglycemia, Postprandial1
3Unknown StatusPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D / Pneumonia1
3Unknown StatusPreventionFalls / Fracture Bone1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNon.Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentTuberculosis1
3WithdrawnTreatmentMinor burns1
4CompletedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Low Bone Mineral Density1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDeficiency, Vitamin D1
4CompletedPreventionAllergies / Wheezing1
4CompletedPreventionAllograft Rejection / Obliterative Bronchiolitis / Transplantation, Lung1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedPreventionBone destruction / Bone Loss / Epilepsies / Fracture Bone1
4CompletedPreventionCrohn's Disease (CD)1
4CompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D2
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Heart Failure (CHF) / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
4CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
4CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Heart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentBone destruction / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hypercalcemia / Hypercalciuria / Osteopenia / Parathyroid deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
4CompletedTreatmentNutritional Rickets1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Menopausal Osteoporosis1
4CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)2
4CompletedTreatmentBone destruction2
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4RecruitingPreventionEclampsia / Gestational Hypertension / HELLP Syndrome / Superimposed Preeclampsia / Toxemia1
4RecruitingPreventionFood Allergy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdynamic Bone Disease / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / Renal Disease Bone / Renal Disease, End Stage / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Depression / Insulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Flaviviridae Infections / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / RNA Virus Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Cytokines1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Vitamin D25 Insufficiency1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCoronary Artery Calcifications / Kidney Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection / Bronchiolitis / Pneumonia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Pain Syndrome / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Inflammatory Responses1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPersistent Asthma1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Insulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHMG COA Reductase Inhibitor Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableWilliams Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / BMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Endothelial Function / Renal Function1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMalignant Melanoma of Skin1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDiabetic Neuropathies1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTuberculosis, Pulmonary1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Hypovitaminosis D1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeficiency of Vitamin D3 / Gingival and Periodontal Disease / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBone destruction / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHIV Seropositive1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPsoriasis Vulgaris (Plaque Psoriasis)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTransplant Bone Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionTransient Hypercalciuria1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareHyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Glucose tolerance impaired / Insulin Resistance / Oxidative Stress1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Psoriasis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMuscle Cramps1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Musculoskeletal Pain / Vitamin D Supplementation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGlucose tolerance impaired / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHypocalcemia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHMG COA Reductase Inhibitor Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
OintmentTopical
ElixirOral
Granule, effervescentOral
CreamTopical
WaferOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral400 unit
Capsule, liquid filledOral
LozengeOral
Solution / dropsOral
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Liquid; tabletOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, chewableOral
KitOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral50000 unit
TabletOral
LiquidOral100000 unit
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral250 unit
Capsule; liquidOral
SolutionOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
CapsuleOral200 unit
TabletOral400 unit
TabletOral1000 unit
CapsuleOral195 unit
PowderOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B...
Gene Name
VDR
Uniprot ID
P11473
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D3 receptor
Molecular Weight
48288.64 Da
References
  1. Choi M, Yamada S, Makishima M: Dynamic and ligand-selective interactions of vitamin D receptor with retinoid X receptor and cofactors in living cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;80(6):1147-55. doi: 10.1124/mol.111.074138. Epub 2011 Sep 14. [PubMed:21917910]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.
Gene Name
GC
Uniprot ID
P02774
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D-binding protein
Molecular Weight
52963.025 Da
References
  1. Arnaud J, Constans J: Affinity differences for vitamin D metabolites associated with the genetic isoforms of the human serum carrier protein (DBP). Hum Genet. 1993 Sep;92(2):183-8. [PubMed:8370586]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Has a D-25-hydroxylase activity on both forms of vitamin D, vitamin D(2) and D(3).
Gene Name
CYP2R1
Uniprot ID
Q6VVX0
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
57358.82 Da
References
  1. DeLuca HF: Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1689S-96S. [PubMed:15585789]
  2. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [PubMed:15531486]
  3. DeLuca HF: Metabolism of vitamin D: current status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Nov;29(11):1258-70. [PubMed:187053]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID
O15528
Uniprot Name
25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56503.475 Da
References
  1. DeLuca HF: Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1689S-96S. [PubMed:15585789]
  2. DeLuca HF: Metabolism of vitamin D: current status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Nov;29(11):1258-70. [PubMed:187053]
  3. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [PubMed:15531486]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on August 14, 2018 04:32