|DB01638||Sorbitol||Used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema.|
|DB09020||Bisacodyl|| Indicated for cleansing of the colon as a preparation for colonoscopy in adults. |
|DB09268||Picosulfuric acid||Indicated for cleansing of the colon as a preparation for colonoscopy in adults [FDA Label].|
|DB09287||Polyethylene glycol||Used to treat and prevent constipation.|
|DB09311||Polycarbophil||Polycarbophil is used to treat constipation and to help maintain regular bowel movements.|
|DB09472||Sodium sulfate||indicated for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or barium enema X-ray examination.|
|DB11059||Carboxymethylcellulose||Indicated for the symptomatic relief of burning, irritation and discomfort of the eyes due to dryness or exposure to wind or sun.|
|DB11097||Plantago seed||Indications include the treatment of patients needing a high fibre regime, perhaps for: (a) the relief of constipation, including constipation in pregnancy and the maintenance of regularity; (b) the management of bowel function in patients with colostomy, ileostomy, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, chronic diarrhea with diverticular disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and ulcerative colitis [L1865].|
|DB11113||Castor oil||Indicated for over-the-counter use as a laxative for oral use and as a soothing agent for topical use on skin and hair. |
|DB11365||Sennosides||For the over the counter treatment of constipation[FDA Label][L771].|
|DB00581||Lactulose||Lactulose is indicated for use as a laxative in the treatment of chronic constipation in adults and geriatric patients.[FDA Label,L6199,L6202]
Additionally, lactulose is also employed as an adjunct to protein restriction and supportive therapy for the prevention and treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE), including both the hepatic pre-coma and coma variations.[FDA Label,L6199,L6202] In particular, lactulose solution has been effective at managing PSE resulting from surgical portacaval shunts or from chronic hepatic diseases like cirrhosis.[L6199]
Moreover, there have also been studies demonstrating the capacity for lactulose to minimize the formation of gallstones and even some investigations regarding the experimental use of the agent in developing novel anticancer agents owing to its ability to bind galactin carbohydrates involved in various tumor progressions [L6202].|
|DB09462||Glycerin||It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.|
|DB11057||Mineral oil||Mineral oil is not considered an active pharmacological ingredient in pharmaceutical preparations and so has no official indication. It is typically present in topical formulations as an emollient and occlusive agent [T182].|
|DB11089||Docusate||Indicated for the treatment of constipation associated with dry, hard stools or opioid induced constipation[A176984]. Though recently, pressure has been building to end the use of docusate over concerns of efficacy[A176972,A176987,L5912].|
|DB11228||Methylcellulose||Solutions containing methyl cellulose are used as substitute for tears or saliva if the natural production of these fluids is disturbed. It is also used or constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids and irritable bowel syndrome. Used in the manufacture of capsules in nutritional supplements. Its edible and nontoxic properties provide a vegetarian alternative to the use of gelatin.|
|DB11110||Magnesium citrate||Magnesium citrate has been used in bowel preparations prior to a colonoscopy as a cathartic agent.[T215]
It is also used in over-the-counter products to relieve occasional constipation.[L2841]
Magnesium citrate can be one of the forms used for the administration of dietary supplements.[L2842]|
|DB09104||Magnesium hydroxide||Magnesium hydroxide can be used as an antacid or a laxative depending on the administered dose.
As an antacid, it is used for the temporary relief of heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach or acid indigestion.
As a laxative, it is used for the relief of occasional constipation by promoting bowel movements for 30 minutes and up to 6 hours.
|DB01377||Magnesium oxide||Indicated for over-the-counter use as a supplement for cardiovascular and neuromuscular health, and as an antacid for relief of acid indigestion and upset stomach.|
|DB00653||Magnesium sulfate||Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.|
|DB09481||Magnesium carbonate||Used as an over the counter antacid [L593].|
|DB13707||Sodium tartrate|| It acts as an emulsifier and pH control agent in food products [L2590], [L2598].
In the laboratory, it is used while performing the Karl Fischer equation, which is used to determine the water content of various substances [F18], [L2590].|
|DB00742||Mannitol||Used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established, the reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.|
|DB09449||Sodium phosphate, monobasic||Used to treat constipation or to clean the bowel before a colonoscopy [FDA Label].|
|DB13486||Magnesium peroxide||Not Available|
|DB04824||Phenolphthalein||Used for over a century as a laxative.|
|DB09219||Bisoxatin||For use in the treatment of constipation in the absence of bowel obstruction and for surgical preparation of the colon [L926].|
|DB01046||Lubiprostone||For the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in the adult population. Also used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women who are 18 years of age or older.|
|DB08890||Linaclotide||Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation. |
|DB06480||Prucalopride||Prucalopride is indicated for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in adults.[L4882]
CIC is one of the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The diagnosis of this agent is very hard and it can be confirmed if the patient experience at least two of the following:
-Straining during more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Lumpy or hard stools in 25% of the bowel movements.
-Sensation of incomplete evacuation in more than 25% of all bowel movements.
-Sensation of anorectal blockage or obstruction in more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Manual maneuvers required in more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.[L4883]|
|DB01079||Tegaserod||Tegaserod is a serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of adult women less than 65 years of age with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) [F4223, F4229]. The safety and effectiveness of tegaserod in men with IBS-C have not been established [F4223, F4229].|
|DB13170||Plecanatide||Plecanatide stimulates intestinal fluid secretions in the gastrointestinal tract to support regular bowel function. Plecanatide, taken orally once daily, works locally in the upper GI tract to stimulate secretion of intestinal fluid and support regular bowel function.|
|DB01378||Magnesium cation||Not Available|
|DB01593||Zinc||Zinc can be used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency/its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slowed wound healing. It is also utilized for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, as well as preventing lower respiratory tract infections [L2172].
|DB14516||Sodium cation||Not Available|
|DB14546||Sulfate ion||Not Available|
|DB14585||Plantago ovata seed||Not Available|
|DB03793||Benzoic Acid||Not Available|
|DB04398||Lactic acid||For use as an alkalinizing agent.|
|DB06715||Potassium Iodide||Potassium Iodide is oral antithyroid agent used in the prevention of radioactive iodine uptake into the thyroid gland during a nuclear radiation emergency. Potassium Iodide may be used as an adjunct to other antithyroid agents in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis and preoperatively to induce thyroid involution.|
|DB06778||Cupric sulfate||Elemental use in copper deficiency [L1823]
Copper and copper containing compounds are broadly used in medical practice. Metallic copper is used already for many years in dental fillings and in copper intrauterine devices (IUD) for reversible contraception. Ointments containing copper, which release copper ions that are absorbed by the skin in the management of cramps, disturbances of renal function, peripheral, venous hypostatic circulatory disturbances, rheumatic disease and swelling associated with trauma. There are also cosmetic facial creams containing copper as their main active ingredient [L1828].|
|DB09154||Sodium citrate||Used as an anticoagulant during plasmophoresis as well as a neutralizing agent in the treatment of upset stomach and acidic urine [FDA Label] [L788] [L789].|
|DB09269||Phenylacetic acid||For use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia and associated encephalopathy in patients with deficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle.|
|DB09281||Magnesium trisilicate||For the treatment of peptic ulcers.
Relieving indigestion and heartburn.|
|DB09325||Sodium fluoride||To prevent cavities. |
|DB09409||Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate||Used as magnesium salf-containing laxatives to prevent constipation. It can bring synergistic effect to restore normal bowel function when using in combination with aluminum salts that induce bowel retention [T28]. Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is used as a source of water and electrolytes when combined with dextrose and other salts to form intravenous infusions. This injection can be used for patients with carbohydrate or magnesium deficiency, insulin hypoglycemia, constipation or hypertension during pregnancy.|
|DB09413||Monopotassium phosphate||Used in buffers (determination of pH, pharmaceutical production, urinary acidifier, paper processing, baking powder, and food), nutrient solutions, yeast foods, special liquid fertilizers, sonar systems and other electronic applications;
Used as a nutritional supplement in foods, a nonlinear optical material for laser use, and in wastewater treatment; |
|DB09414||Dipotassium phosphate||Dipotassium phosphate is used in imitation dairy creamers, dry powder beverages, mineral supplements, and starter cultures as an additive. It is used in non-dairy creamers to prevent coagulation. Dipotassium phosphate is also used to make buffer solutions and it is used in the production of trypticase soy agar which is used to make agar plates for culturing bacteria.|
|DB09483||Potassium lactate||Not Available|
|DB09484||Sodium fluorophosphate||Sodium monofluorophosphate is indicated for the treatment of cavities|
|DB09561||Sodium glycerophosphate||Sodium glycerophosphate is indicated for use as a source of phosphate in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label]. It is used in combination with amino acids, dextrose, lipid emulsions, and other electrolytes.|
|DB11090||Potassium nitrate||For the relief of tooth sensitivity, and is also used as a pesticide, insecticide, as a food additive, and a rodenticide [L1751, L1754, L1757].
|DB11119||Sodium iodide||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) [L2065]. |
Medically, the microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations is utilized in the diagnosis of fungal hyphae or trichomonads [L1950].
Samples from hair, skin, or nail tissue are obtained by scraping with a scalpel, cotton-tipped applicator and are inoculated directly onto the KOH solution [L1950].
In addition to the above, potassium hydroxide is used as a softener for nail grooves [L1949].|
|DB11189||Magnesium glycinate||Not Available|
|DB11239||Aluminum sulfate||Solutions containing 5 to 10% aluminum sulfate have been used as local applications to ulcers and to arrest foul discharges from mucous surfaces. Aluminum sulfate is also used in the preparation of aluminum acetate ear drops [L2149]. It is often purchased over the counter and is available in solid stick or powder form for minor cuts and abrasions after shaving [L2157], [L2164]. Aluminum sulfate is also used as an adjuvant in vaccines [L2158].|
|DB13180||Gluconic Acid||For use as part of electrolyte supplementation in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label].|
|DB13735||Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate||Not Available|
|DB13743||Sodium aurotiosulfate||Not Available|
|DB13996||Magnesium acetate||Not Available|
|DB14482||Sodium ascorbate||Not Available|
|DB14498||Potassium acetate||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB14499||Potassium sulfate||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB14502||Sodium phosphate, dibasic||Used to treat constipation or to clean the bowel before a colonoscopy [FDA Label].|
|DB14503||Sodium phosphate, monobasic, unspecified form||Used to treat constipation or to clean the bowel before a colonoscopy [FDA Label].|
|DB14504||Sodium phosphate, dibasic, unspecified form||Not Available|
|DB14627||Oxyphenisatin acetate||Not Available|
|DB14684||Calcium polycarbophil||Polycarbophil is used to treat constipation and to help maintain regular bowel movements.|
|DB14963||Konjac mannan||Not Available|