Identification

Name
Promazine
Accession Number
DB00420  (APRD00358)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A phenothiazine with actions similar to chlorpromazine but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic. Promazine is not approved for use in the United States.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 10-(3-(Dimethylamino)propyl)phenothiazine
  • Frenil
  • N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)phenothiazine
  • N-Dimethylamino-1-methylethyl thiodiphenylamine
  • N,N-dimethyl-3-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-propan-1-amine
  • Promazin
  • Promazina
  • Promazine
  • Promazinum
External IDs
A 145 / RP 3276 / Wy 1094
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Promazine HydrochlorideU16EOR79U453-60-1JIVSXRLRGOICGA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Promazine HCl Inj 50mg/mlLiquid50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousAbbott1981-12-312008-06-06Canada
International/Other Brands
Combelen / Prazine (Pliva) / Sparine / Talofen (Abbott)
Categories
UNII
O9M39HTM5W
CAS number
58-40-2
Weight
Average: 284.419
Monoisotopic: 284.13471934
Chemical Formula
C17H20N2S
InChI Key
ZGUGWUXLJSTTMA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H20N2S/c1-18(2)12-7-13-19-14-8-3-5-10-16(14)20-17-11-6-4-9-15(17)19/h3-6,8-11H,7,12-13H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
dimethyl[3-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propyl]amine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2SC2=CC=CC=C12

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as an adjunct for short term treatment of moderate and severe psychomotor agitation. Also used to treat agitation or restlessness in the elderly.

Pharmacodynamics

Promazine belongs to a group of medications known as the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It acts by blocking a variety of receptors in the brain, particularly dopamine receptors. Dopamine is involved in transmitting signals between brain cells. When there is an excess amount of dopamine in the brain it causes over-stimulation of dopamine receptors. These receptors normally act to modify behaviour and over-stimulation may result in psychotic illness. Promazine hydrochloride blocks these receptors and stops them becoming over-stimulated, thereby helping to control psychotic illness. Promazine has weak extrapyramidal and autonomic side effects which lead to its use in the elderly, for restless or psychotic patients. Its anti-psychotic effect is also weaker and it is not useful in general psychiatry.

Mechanism of action

Promazine is an antagonist at types 1, 2, and 4 dopamine receptors, 5-HT receptor types 2A and 2C, muscarinic receptors 1 through 5, alpha(1)-receptors, and histamine H1-receptors. Promazine's antipsychotic effect is due to antagonism at dopamine and serotonin type 2 receptors, with greater activity at serotonin 5-HT2 receptors than at dopamine type-2 receptors. This may explain the lack of extrapyramidal effects. Promazine does not appear to block dopamine within the tubero-infundibular tract, explaining the lower incidence of hyperprolactinemia than with typical antipsychotic agents or risperidone. Antagonism at muscarinic receptors, H1-receptors, and alpha(1)-receptors also occurs with promazine.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(2) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
antagonist
Human
UD(1A) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
UD(4) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
UAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Human
UAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Absorption may be erratic and peak plasma concentrations show large interindividual differences.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

94%

Metabolism

Hepatic, primarily to N-desmethylpromazine and promazine sulfoxide.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects include: extrapyramidal symptoms, drowsiness, weight gain, dry mouth, constipation, endocrine effects (such as gynaecomastia and menstrual disturbance), sensitivity to sunlight and haemolytic anaemia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetaminePromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetaminePromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetaminePromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetaminePromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
5'-Deoxy-5'-MethylthioadenosineThe serum concentration of Promazine can be increased when it is combined with 5'-Deoxy-5'-Methylthioadenosine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Promazine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Promazine.
AcepromazinePromazine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Acepromazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US2519886
General References
  1. Cubala WJ, Jakuszkowiak-Wojten K, Burkiewicz A, Wronska A: Promazine in the treatment of delusional parasitosis. Psychiatr Danub. 2011 Jun;23(2):198-9. [PubMed:21685861]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014564
KEGG Drug
D08430
KEGG Compound
C07379
PubChem Compound
4926
PubChem Substance
46504504
ChemSpider
4757
BindingDB
67545
ChEBI
8459
ChEMBL
CHEMBL564
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000430
PharmGKB
PA451126
HET
P2Z
Wikipedia
Promazine
ATC Codes
N05AA03 — Promazine
PDB Entries
4ma7
MSDS
Download (75.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Apothecon sub bristol myers squibb co
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • Bristol myers squibb co
Packagers
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Sandoz
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Chlorpromazine 25 mg/ml amp8.04USD ml
Chlorpromazine 200 mg tablet1.05USD tablet
Chlorpromazine Hcl 25 mg/ml0.88USD ml
Chlorpromazine 100 mg tablet0.39USD tablet
Novo-Chlorpromazine 100 mg Tablet0.35USD tablet
Chlorpromazine 10 mg tablet0.32USD tablet
Chlorpromazine 50 mg tablet0.3USD tablet
Novo-Chlorpromazine 50 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Novo-Chlorpromazine 25 mg Tablet0.18USD tablet
Chlorpromazine 25 mg tablet0.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)203-210 °C at 3.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility14.2 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.55HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.3ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.36SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0207 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.63ALOGPS
logP3.93ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity88.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9718
Blood Brain Barrier+0.987
Caco-2 permeable+0.8813
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7933
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6857
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6352
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7561
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7526
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.9334
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5578
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8935
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9483
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.9622
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.798
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9166
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6784
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9176
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9545
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9921
Rat acute toxicity2.9416 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9662
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7828
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.05 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4r-9230000000-62cbfd979fa705bc6b5e
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-053i-9470000000-c8ea76fcc1b124b82db0
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-000i-2090000000-c38077fbc5880feb7eab
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4i-9430000000-708a7cbef8d61ce76846
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiazines
Sub Class
Phenothiazines
Direct Parent
Phenothiazines
Alternative Parents
Alkyldiarylamines / Diarylthioethers / Benzenoids / 1,4-thiazines / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Phenothiazine / Alkyldiarylamine / Diarylthioether / Aryl thioether / Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine / Para-thiazine / Benzenoid / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Thioether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenothiazines, tertiary amine (CHEBI:8459)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Govitrapong P, Chagkutip J, Turakitwanakan W, Srikiatkhachorn A: Platelet 5-HT(2A) receptors in schizophrenic patients with and without neuroleptic treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2000 Sep 25;96(1):41-50. [PubMed:10980325]
  4. Govitrapong P, Mukda S, Turakitwanakan W, Dumrongphol H, Chindaduangratn C, Sanvarinda Y: Platelet serotonin transporter in schizophrenic patients with and without neuroleptic treatment. Neurochem Int. 2002 Oct;41(4):209-16. [PubMed:12106771]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Details
13. Histamine H1 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [PubMed:2899826]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2018 07:36