Identification

Name
Procaine
Accession Number
DB00721  (APRD00650, DB05342)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016). Procaine has also been investigated as an oral entry inhibitor in treatment-experienced HIV patients [2].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-Diethylaminoethyl p-aminobenzoate
  • 4-aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
  • Novocaine
  • p-Aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
  • Procaina
  • Procainum
  • Vitamin H3
  • β-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
  • β-(diethylamino)ethyl p-aminobenzoate
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Procaine hydrochloride95URV01IDQ51-05-8HCBIBCJNVBAKAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Procaine nitrateT824SI1PU16192-92-3XUXYDJABBYUMRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Procaine phosphateA18LHT9ZXJ54812-66-7NPBISBZNYVWJOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NovocainInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUs
NovocainInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUs
NovocainInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUs
Novocain 20 mg/mlSolution2 %InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2001-06-012012-08-03Canada
Novocain Liq 2%Liquid2 %InfiltrationSanofi1920-12-312001-08-10Canada
NovocaineInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntraspinal; Intrathecal; SubarachnoidHospira, Inc.2006-09-12Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Novocain
Categories
UNII
4Z8Y51M438
CAS number
59-46-1
Weight
Average: 236.3101
Monoisotopic: 236.152477894
Chemical Formula
C13H20N2O2
InChI Key
MFDFERRIHVXMIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H20N2O2/c1-3-15(4-2)9-10-17-13(16)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCOC(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as a local anesthetic primarily in oral surgery

Pharmacodynamics

Procaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia, particularly for oral surgery. Procaine (like cocaine) has the advantage of constricting blood vessels which reduces bleeding, unlike other local anesthetics like lidocaine. Procaine is an ester anesthetic. It is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is then excreted by the kidneys into the urine.

Mechanism of action

Procaine acts mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through voltage gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane of peripheral nerves. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is thus inhibited. The receptor site is thought to be located at the cytoplasmic (inner) portion of the sodium channel. Procaine has also been shown to bind or antagonize the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the serotonin receptor-ion channel complex.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
antagonist
Human
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
antagonist
Human
UDNA
binder
Human
UCalcium-activated potassium channel
binder
Human
UPhospholipase A2
inhibitor
Human
ULysophospholipase
inhibitor
Human
UMonoamine oxidase
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hydrolysis by plasma esterases to PABA

Route of elimination

With normal kidney function, the drug is excreted rapidly by tubular excretion.

Half life

7.7 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Procaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procaine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Procaine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Procaine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Procaine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Procaine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is combined with Procaine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Procaine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US812554
General References
  1. Gentry CL, Lukas RJ: Local anesthetics noncompetitively inhibit function of four distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):1038-48. [PubMed:11714893]
  2. Clinical Trial NCT00299897 [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014859
KEGG Drug
D08422
KEGG Compound
C07375
PubChem Compound
4914
PubChem Substance
46507724
ChemSpider
4745
BindingDB
64452
ChEBI
8430
ChEMBL
CHEMBL569
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000296
PharmGKB
PA451110
IUPHAR
4291
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Procaine
ATC Codes
S01HA05 — ProcaineN01BA52 — Procaine, combinationsN01BA02 — ProcaineC05AD05 — Procaine
MSDS
Download (73.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNasopharyngeal Neoplasms / Vesicular Stomatitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Consolidated pharmaceutical group inc
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Pfizer laboratories div pfizer inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Miles laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Smiths Medical ASD Inc.
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Torrance Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
SolutionInfiltration2 %
LiquidInfiltration2 %
Injection, solutionIntraspinal; Intrathecal; Subarachnoid100 mg/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novocain 10% ampul2.4USD ml
Novocain 1% ampul1.79USD ml
Procaine hcl crystals1.76USD g
Nesacaine-mpf 3% vial1.34USD ml
Nesacaine-mpf 2% vial1.28USD ml
Nesacaine 2% vial0.74USD ml
Nesacaine 1% vial0.72USD ml
Chloroprocaine 3% vial0.33USD ml
Chloroprocaine 2% vial0.26USD ml
Procaine hcl 2% vial0.15USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °CPhysProp
water solubility9450 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.14AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.4ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.05 (at 15 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.81 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.1ALOGPS
logP1.88ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity70.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9747
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9533
Caco-2 permeable+0.6291
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.587
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9492
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9884
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.684
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8646
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6643
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6456
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6308
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9312
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9294
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6165
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6462
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9449
Rat acute toxicity2.5160 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8728
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6234
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9200000000-44eb49be9b2baedfebdd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7c7d7173da9393c2d059
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0910000000-279febfbe258e2ce2807
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-997e743a0702a7a5b54f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-39c6b968e8d17c932e10
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9700000000-157dc94224e66c932ae8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-050d794abd6d3a7e685d
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01w0-1940000000-d4d5195f000d2d633df7
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Benzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Aminobenzoic acids and derivatives / Benzoyl derivatives / Aniline and substituted anilines / Trialkylamines / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds
show 2 more
Substituents
Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives / Benzoate ester / Benzoyl / Aniline or substituted anilines / Amino acid or derivatives / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Carboxylic acid ester / Carboxylic acid derivative / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, substituted aniline, benzoate ester (CHEBI:8430)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Brau ME, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Fundamental properties of local anesthetics: half-maximal blocking concentrations for tonic block of Na+ and K+ channels in peripheral nerve. Anesth Analg. 1998 Oct;87(4):885-9. [PubMed:9768788]
  4. Katalymov LL: [The effect of inhibitors of sodium permeability (novocaine and tetrodotoxin) on the trace depolarization of myelinated nerve fibers]. Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Sep;81(9):127-33. [PubMed:8581044]
  5. Creveling CR, Bell ME, Burke TR Jr, Chang E, Lewandowski-Lovenberg GA, Kim CH, Rice KC, Daly JW: Procaine isothiocyanate: an irreversible inhibitor of the specific binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin-A benzoate to sodium channels. Neurochem Res. 1990 Apr;15(4):441-8. [PubMed:2167458]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hahnenkamp K, Durieux ME, Hahnenkamp A, Schauerte SK, Hoenemann CW, Vegh V, Theilmeier G, Hollmann MW: Local anaesthetics inhibit signalling of human NMDA receptors recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: role of protein kinase C. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Jan;96(1):77-87. Epub 2005 Nov 18. [PubMed:16299047]
  4. Nishizawa N, Shirasaki T, Nakao S, Matsuda H, Shingu K: The inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel by local anesthetics in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Anesth Analg. 2002 Feb;94(2):325-30, table of contents. [PubMed:11812692]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Fan P, Weight FF: Procaine impairs the function of 5-HT3 receptor-ion channel complex in rat sensory ganglion neurons. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Dec;33(12):1573-9. [PubMed:7539114]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [PubMed:10685879]
  2. Wilcox KM, Kimmel HL, Lindsey KP, Votaw JR, Goodman MM, Howell LL: In vivo comparison of the reinforcing and dopamine transporter effects of local anesthetics in rhesus monkeys. Synapse. 2005 Dec 15;58(4):220-8. [PubMed:16206183]
  3. Kiyatkin EA, Brown PL: The role of peripheral and central sodium channels in mediating brain temperature fluctuations induced by intravenous cocaine. Brain Res. 2006 Oct 30;1117(1):38-53. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16956595]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID
Q15822
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Wang H, Zhang Y, Li ST: The effect of local anesthetics on the inhibition of adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 25;630(1-3):29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.028. Epub 2010 Jan 4. [PubMed:20045405]
6. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Villar-Garea A, Fraga MF, Espada J, Esteller M: Procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent with growth-inhibitory effects in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;63(16):4984-9. [PubMed:12941824]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activati...
Gene Name
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID
Q12791
Uniprot Name
Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
137558.115 Da
References
  1. Benham CD, Bolton TB, Lang RJ, Takewaki T: The mechanism of action of Ba2+ and TEA on single Ca2+-activated K+ -channels in arterial and intestinal smooth muscle cell membranes. Pflugers Arch. 1985 Feb;403(2):120-7. [PubMed:2580269]
8. Phospholipase A2
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Kunze H, Nahas N, Traynor JR, Wurl M: Effects of local anaesthetics on phospholipases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Jul 20;441(1):93-102. [PubMed:952985]
9. Lysophospholipase
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Kawashima Y, Nakagawa M, Suzuki Y, Uchiyama M: The relationship between chain elongation of palmitoyl-CoA and phospholipid content in rat liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Aug 23;441(2):173-80. [PubMed:952986]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...

Components:
References
  1. MacFarlane MD: Procaine HCl (Gerovital H3): a weak, reversible, fully competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Fed Proc. 1975 Jan;34(1):108-10. [PubMed:1109354]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Perez-Guillermo F, Delgado EM, Vidal CJ: Inhibition of human serum and rabbit muscle cholinesterase by local anesthetics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Nov 1;36(21):3593-6. [PubMed:3675616]
  2. Dorokhov KE, Grigorian GL: [Binding of reversible spin-labeled inhibitors with an butyrylcholinesterase active center]. Biofizika. 1986 Sep-Oct;31(5):746-51. [PubMed:3022829]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 01, 2018 16:49