Zinc gluconate

Identification

Name
Zinc gluconate
Accession Number
DB11248
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Zinc gluconate is a zinc salt of gluconic acid comprised of two gluconic acid molecules for each zinc cation (2+). Zinc gluconate is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance by FDA [9]. It is available as a trace mineral supplement and over the counter as a lozenge form for a reduced duration of common colds and with decreased symptom severity.

Although it has been nasally administered for treating the common cold, this route of administration has been associated with some cases of anosmia [5], [1], [2], [7].

Studies show that zinc may be better absorbed in humans in the gluconate form [4], [19], however, results from other studies may vary [10], [L27280].

Interestingly, zinc supplementation has become a critical intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions/salts (oral rehydration solution), may reduce both the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to 12 weeks [8].

More information about Zinc (in its natural form) is available at Zinc.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Zinc cationionic13S1S8SF3723713-49-7PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chelated Zinc Tab 25mgTablet25 mgOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1985-12-311996-09-16Canada
Chelated Zinc Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralNutra Research Intl Ltd.1986-12-312006-08-04Canada
Zinc Gluconate Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Zinc Supplement Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralHilcoa, Division Of Jeunique International1975-12-311996-10-22Canada
Zinc Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1983-12-311996-09-09Canada
Zinc Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Calcium - Magnesium - Zinc TabZinc gluconate (8 mg) + Calcium Carbonate (333 mg) + Magnesium oxide (133 mg)TabletOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Calcium Magnesium Avec Vitamine D Et ZincZinc gluconate (10 mg) + Calcium (335 mg) + Ergocalciferol (135 unit) + Magnesium oxide (167 mg)TabletOralLes Aliments Nutri Source Inc.1991-12-311996-09-09Canada
Lipall Plus TabZinc gluconate (1.67 mg) + Ascorbic acid (20 mg) + Choline bitartrate (333.33 mg) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (2.5 unit) + Inositol (8.33 mg) + Iodine (.025 mg) + Niacin (25 mg)TabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1980-12-311996-10-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
FlorivaZinc gluconate (5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic Acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
FlorivaZinc gluconate (5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic Acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (1 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-15Not applicableUs
FlorivaZinc gluconate (5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic Acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.5 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-15Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
U6WSN5SQ1Z
CAS number
4468-02-4
Weight
Average: 455.67
Monoisotopic: 454.030097
Chemical Formula
C12H22O14Zn
InChI Key
WHMDKBIGKVEYHS-IYEMJOQQSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2C6H12O7.Zn/c2*7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2*2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,3-,4+,5-;/m11./s1
IUPAC Name
zinc(2+) ion bis((2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate)
SMILES
[Zn++].[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C([O-])=O.[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Zinc gluconate is mainly indicated in conditions like zinc deficiency, and can also be administered in adjunctive therapy as an alternative drug of choice in diarrhea [15].

Pharmacodynamics

Zinc is an important mineral found in almost every cell in the human body. It promotes the activity of about 100 enzymes. Zinc deficiency is often associated with an increased risk of infection. When they are used to treat the common cold, zinc supplements may interfere with rhinovirus cleavage or adhesion and may play a role in protecting plasma membranes from microbial toxins and complement [13].

Mechanism of action

Although the mechanism of action is not completely known, zinc supplementation may be used to increase immunity against viruses or may interfere with the replication of certain viruses, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) [7].

Absorption

Please refer to DrugBank entry Zinc

Volume of distribution

Stored primarily in skeletal muscle and bone [13].

Protein binding

Please refer to DrugBank entry Zinc

Metabolism

Please refer to DrugBank entry Zinc

Route of elimination

Feces and urine [13]

Half life

280 days [18]

Clearance

Please refer to DrugBank entry Zinc

Toxicity

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mouth irritation have been reported in patients ingesting zinc gluconate tablets that were dissolved in the mouth for management the common cold [11].

Zinc crosses the placenta and is found the cord blood and placenta. Fetal concentrations are regulated by the placenta [11].

For more information, refer to Please refer to DrugBank entry Zinc.

Acute: 1290 mg/kg in mouse [12]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
CarbamazepineZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbamazepine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CeftibutenZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ceftibuten resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CephalexinZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cephalexin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CinoxacinZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cinoxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CiprofloxacinZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ciprofloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ClomocyclineZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Clomocycline resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DeferiproneZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferiprone resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DelafloxacinZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Delafloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DemeclocyclineZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Demeclocycline resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DifloxacinZinc gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Difloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Marshall S: Zinc gluconate and the common cold. Review of randomized controlled trials. Can Fam Physician. 1998 May;44:1037-42. [PubMed:9612589]
  2. Farr BM, Conner EM, Betts RF, Oleske J, Minnefor A, Gwaltney JM Jr: Two randomized controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Aug;31(8):1183-7. [PubMed:2820298]
  3. McElroy BH, Miller SP: Effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) against the common cold in school-aged subjects: a retrospective chart review. Am J Ther. 2002 Nov-Dec;9(6):472-5. [PubMed:12424502]
  4. Siepmann M, Spank S, Kluge A, Schappach A, Kirch W: The pharmacokinetics of zinc from zinc gluconate: a comparison with zinc oxide in healthy men. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;43(12):562-5. [PubMed:16372518]
  5. Heckmann SM, Hujoel P, Habiger S, Friess W, Wichmann M, Heckmann JG, Hummel T: Zinc gluconate in the treatment of dysgeusia--a randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2005 Jan;84(1):35-8. doi: 10.1177/154405910508400105. [PubMed:15615872]
  6. Wegmuller R, Tay F, Zeder C, Brnic M, Hurrell RF: Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide. J Nutr. 2014 Feb;144(2):132-6. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.181487. Epub 2013 Nov 20. [PubMed:24259556]
  7. Zinc Gluconate [Link]
  8. NCBI [Link]
  9. Code of federal regulations [Link]
  10. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide [Link]
  11. Zinc Gluconate Toxicity [Link]
  12. Zinc Gluconate, Anhydrous [Link]
  13. Zinc gluconate, Drugs.com [Link]
  14. Zinc Medline Plus [Link]
  15. Drug Info SYS Zinc Gluconate [Link]
  16. Absorption and metabolism of oral zinc gluconate in humans in fasting state, during, and after a meal [Link]
  17. ReductioninDurationofCommon ColdsbyZincGluconate Lozengesina Double-BlindStudy [Link]
  18. Zinc Toxicity in Humans [Link]
  19. The pharmacokinetics of zinc from zinc gluconate: a comparison with zinc oxide in healthy men [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
443445
PubChem Substance
347827951
ChemSpider
391659
ChEBI
29708
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3833377
Wikipedia
Zinc_gluconate
ATC Codes
C05AX04 — Zinc preparationsA12CB02 — Zinc gluconate
MSDS
Download (52.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Unknown StatusPreventionBarrett's Metaplasia1
1, 2CompletedPreventionJaundice, Neonatal1
2CompletedTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)1
3CompletedSupportive CareMeningitis / Pneumonia / Sepsis / Severe or persistent diarrhea / The Mortality Rate1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHearing Loss, Noise-Induced / Tinnitus, Noise Induced / Zinc Deficiency1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral50 mg
Tablet, chewableOral
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral20 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitymoderately soluble Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility40.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area141.28 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity49.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Sugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives / Medium-chain fatty acids / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Hydroxy fatty acids / Monosaccharides / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid salts / Polyols / Organic transition metal salts / Carboxylic acids
show 6 more
Substituents
Gluconic_acid / Medium-chain hydroxy acid / Medium-chain fatty acid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Hydroxy fatty acid / Hydroxy acid / Fatty acyl / Fatty acid / Monosaccharide / Carboxylic acid salt
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:08