Identification

Name
Beta carotene
Accession Number
DB06755
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Beta-carotene, with the molecular formula C40H56, belongs to the group of carotenoids consisting of isoprene units. The presence of long chains of conjugated double bonds donates beta-carotene with specific colors.[8] It is the most abundant form of carotenoid and it is a precursor of the vitamin A. Beta-carotene is composed of two retinyl groups. It is an antioxidant that can be found in yellow, orange and green leafy vegetables and fruits.[4] Under the FDA, beta-carotene is considered as a generally recognized as safe substance (GRAS).[11]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • all-trans-β-carotene
  • Beta carotene
  • beta-carotene
  • Betacarotene
  • β-Karotin
External IDs
C.I.-40800 / CI 75130 / NSC-62794
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Vitamin AunknownG2SH0XKK9168-26-8FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
Product Images
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AbsorbeneCapsule30000 unitOralAu Naturel, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Beta A 10000 CapCapsule10000 unitOralVita Health Products Inc1987-12-312002-07-31Canada
Beta CaroteneCapsule10000 unitOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Beta CaroteneLiquid10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312001-08-09Canada
Beta Carotene - Capsule 25000 IuCapsule25000 unitOralSisu Inc.1995-12-312003-09-12Canada
Beta Carotene - Tab 25000iuTablet25000 unitOralNatures Sunshine Products, Inc.1996-10-102000-07-14Canada
Beta Carotene 10 000 - Tab 10000I.U.Tablet10000 unitOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1997-08-152005-03-15Canada
Beta Carotene 10 000 IuTablet10000 unitOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-102008-07-17Canada
Beta Carotene 10,000 IuTablet10000 unitOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1999-11-232006-08-08Canada
Beta Carotene 10000 I.U. - CapsuleCapsule10000 unitOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsBeta carotene (10000 unit) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
A.B.C. Formula #1Beta carotene (1000 unit) + Zinc (4 mg)TabletOralVallee Import/Export1997-01-011999-06-28Canada
A/o-26 - CapletBeta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic Acid (.4 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
Aces Formula/formule A A SBeta carotene (3333 unit) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Vitamin E (400 unit)CapsuleOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Acti-carotene + Zn CapletBeta carotene (25000 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-retinol & Zn CapletBeta carotene (20000 unit) + Vitamin A (3333 unit) + Zinc (7 mg) + Zinc (1 mg) + Zinc (.5 mg) + Zinc (1 mg) + Zinc (.5 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-03Canada
Am CapsBeta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Calcium ascorbate (30 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.20 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.85 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg) + Vitamin E (15 unit)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Am CapsBeta carotene (1250 unit) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (3 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.2 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.90 mg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals Company1998-10-012002-11-20Canada
B-plus - TabBeta carotene (5000 unit) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Biotin (300 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (50 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (50 mcg) + Inositol (100 mg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (50 mg) + Pyridoxine (50 mg) + Riboflavin (40 mg) + Thiamine (50 mg)TabletOralChampion's Choice Advanced Nutrition Inc.1997-06-111999-08-28Canada
Balance Ace - CapBeta carotene (10000 unit) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Cupric oxide (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (200 unit) + Manganese (1.5 mg) + Sodium selenate (15 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)CapsuleOralPharmavite1996-09-062002-07-25Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Active FEBeta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic Acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUs
Bal-Care DHABeta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (430 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Bal-Care DHA EssentialBeta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (374 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Cavan AlphaBeta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (220 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-07-012013-09-30Us
Cavan Folate DHABeta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Beta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-06-042012-03-31Us
Cavan Folate DHABeta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Beta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-06-042012-03-31Us
Cavan Folate OBBeta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (70 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Ferrous fumarate (65 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (18 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-08-232012-05-31Us
Cavan-EC SOD DHABeta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (26 mg/1)KitOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-08-242013-01-15Us
Cavan-EC SOD DHABeta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
Choice OB DHABeta carotene (1700 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (29 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (15 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.8 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.6 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1)KitAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-05-172015-07-31Us
Categories
UNII
01YAE03M7J
CAS number
7235-40-7
Weight
Average: 536.888
Monoisotopic: 536.438201803
Chemical Formula
C40H56
InChI Key
OENHQHLEOONYIE-JLTXGRSLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C40H56/c1-31(19-13-21-33(3)25-27-37-35(5)23-15-29-39(37,7)8)17-11-12-18-32(2)20-14-22-34(4)26-28-38-36(6)24-16-30-40(38,9)10/h11-14,17-22,25-28H,15-16,23-24,29-30H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,19-13+,20-14+,27-25+,28-26+,31-17+,32-18+,33-21+,34-22+
IUPAC Name
1,3,3-trimethyl-2-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-18-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)octadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]cyclohex-1-ene
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication

Beta-carotene is FDA approved to be used as a nutrient supplement and to be even added in infant formula as a source of vitamin A.[11] It is also approved to be used as a color additive for food products,[12] drugs (with the label of "only as a color additive")[13] and cosmetics.[14]

It is used commonly for the reduction of photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases.[1]

Pharmacodynamics

Oral administration of beta-carotene increases the serum concentration of beta-carotene by 60% but it does not change the concentration found in the heart, liver or kidneys.[5] In vitro studies in hepatocytes have shown that beta-carotene ameliorates oxidative stress, enhances antioxidant activity and decreases apoptosis.[7]

Other than the antioxidant activities, some other actions have been correlated to beta-carotene. It is thought to have detoxifying properties, as well as to help increase resistance to inflammation and infection and increase immune response and enhance RNA production.[15]

Mechanism of action

Beta-carotene is an antioxidant that presents significant efficacy against the reactive oxygen species singlet oxygen.[5] Beta-carotene acts as a scavenger of lipophilic radicals within the membranes of every cell compartments. It also presents an oxidative modification of LDL.[6] The presence of long chains of conjugated double bonds is responsible for its antioxidative properties by allowing beta-carotene to chelate oxygen-free radicals and dissipate their energy.[8] The chelation of free radicals inhibits the peroxidation of lipids.[9]

The effect of beta-carotene in the immune response is thought to be related to the direct effect on the thymus which increases the production of immune cells.[15]

TargetActionsOrganism
AFree radicals
binder
Human
Absorption

After administration of beta-carotene, some of the administered dose is absorbed into the circulatory system unchanged and stored in the fat tissue. The coadministration of beta-carotene and a high-fat content diet is correlated to a better absorption of beta-carotene. The absorption is also dependent on the isomeric form of the molecule where the cis conformation seems to present a higher bioavailability. The absorption of beta-carotene is thought to be performed in 6-7 hours.[15]

The reported AUC of beta-carotene when administered orally from 0 to 440 hours after initial administration was reported to be 26.3 mcg.h/L. The maximal concentration of beta-carotene is attained in a dual pharmacokinetic profile after 6 hours and again after 32 hours with a concentration of 0.58 micromol/L.[3]

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic studies have been performed regarding the volume of distribution of beta-carotene.

Protein binding

Beta-carotene is thought to be highly bound to plasma proteins. It is registered to be retained by the chylomicron and transported in VLDL. After absorption, beta-carotene is rapidly transformed to retinol which is highly bound to a high number of plasma proteins.[10]

Metabolism

Beta-carotene is broken down in the mucosa of the small intestine and liver by beta-carotene dioxygenase to retinal which is a form of vitamin A.[4] The function of this enzyme is vital as it decides if the beta-carotene is transformed to vitamin A or if it circulates in the plasma as beta-carotene.[6] Less than a quarter of the ingested beta-carotene from root vegetables and about half of the beta-carotene from leafy green vegetables are converted to vitamin A.[15]

Route of elimination

The unabsorbed carotene is excreted in feces.[15] It is also excreted in feces and urine as metabolites.[16] The consumption of dietary fiber can increase the fecal excretion of fats and other fat-soluble compounds such as beta-carotene.[17]

Half life

The apparent half-life of beta-carotene is of 6-11 days after initial administration.[2]

Clearance

The clearance rate of beta-carotene administered orally is 0.68 nmol/L each hour.[3]

Toxicity

Beta-carotene is not toxic but the high and constant administration of this substance can translate into skin yellow coloration.[6] Some reports have indicated that administration of high and periodic doses of beta-carotene are correlated to the increase in cancer incidence. This risk seems to be very elevated in the case of smokers.[15] The registered LD50 of beta-carotene is >5000 mg/kg.[MSDS]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
OrlistatOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of Beta carotene resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Mathews-Roth MM, Pathak MA, Fitzpatrick TB, Harber LH, Kass EH: Beta carotene therapy for erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases. Arch Dermatol. 1977 Sep;113(9):1229-32. [PubMed:900968]
  2. Thurmann PA, Steffen J, Zwernemann C, Aebischer CP, Cohn W, Wendt G, Schalch W: Plasma concentration response to drinks containing beta-carotene as carrot juice or formulated as a water dispersible powder. Eur J Nutr. 2002 Oct;41(5):228-35. doi: 10.1007/s00394-002-0381-3. [PubMed:12395217]
  3. Kostic D, White WS, Olson JA: Intestinal absorption, serum clearance, and interactions between lutein and beta-carotene when administered to human adults in separate or combined oral doses. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;62(3):604-10. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/62.3.604. [PubMed:7661123]
  4. Pattani K. (2010). Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer series: Head and Neck Cancer. Elsevier.
  5. Lustgarten M., Muller F. and Van Remmen H. (2011). Handbook of the Biology of Aging (7th ed.). Academic press.
  6. Dasgupta A. and Klein K. (2014). Antioxidants in food, vitamins and supplements. Elsevier.
  7. Ramachandrayya A., Venkatesh S., Bhat H., Palatty P. and Shrinath M. (2015). Foods and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of disease in older adults. Academic press.
  8. Flora G., Mittal M. and Flora S. (2015). Handbook of arsenic toxicology. Academic press.
  9. Abrahao E., Ambrosano L., Lage R., Zugaib B. and Costa A. (2017). Nutrition and functional foods for healthy aging. Academic press.
  10. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
  11. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  12. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  13. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  14. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  15. UCSD lecture [Link]
  16. AHFS [Link]
  17. Meeting the vitamin A requirements [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000561
KEGG Drug
D03101
KEGG Compound
C02094
PubChem Compound
5280489
PubChem Substance
347827791
ChemSpider
4444129
BindingDB
54988
ChEBI
17579
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1293
HET
BCR
Wikipedia
Beta_carotene
ATC Codes
D02BB01 — BetacaroteneA11CA02 — Betacarotene
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00 — Vitamin A
PDB Entries
1izl / 1jb0 / 1q90 / 1s5l / 1vf5 / 1w5c / 2axt / 2d2c / 2e74 / 2e75
show 74 more
MSDS
Download (129 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusPreventionMacular Degeneration1
4CompletedBasic SciencePremature Births1
4CompletedPreventionLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOral10000 unit
CapsuleOral25000 unit
CapsuleOral30000 unit
CapsuleOral10000 unit
TabletOral2500 unit
TabletOral10000 unit
TabletOral25000 unit
TabletOral30000 unit
TabletOral
CapsuleOral5712.96 unit
CapsuleOral924 unit
CapsuleOral5.9 mg
TabletOral5000 unit
TabletOral12500 unit
Tablet, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral
KitOral
PowderOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral6 mg
SyrupOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Kit
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)176-184ºC'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)633-577ºC UCSD
water solubility0.0006 g/l at 25ºC'MSDS'
logP17.62US EPA
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000391 mg/mLALOGPS
logP9.72ALOGPS
logP11.12ChemAxon
logS-6.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity191.61 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability71.84 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-05mx-9810010000-9a261fb8602890c2481e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0016-2794670000-c5bc2a4dbcd0f12cbf7f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-2687970000-782d048d873c21fc6b82
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05ai-1009510000-585581456b10671692bd
MS/MS Spectrum - FAB-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05mx-2920010000-471219f3e66bafb29bee
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0144900000-2fa7b609c7300ff8aba3
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carotenes. These are a type of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing eight consecutive isoprene units. They are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Tetraterpenoids
Direct Parent
Carotenes
Alternative Parents
Branched unsaturated hydrocarbons / Cycloalkenes / Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons
Substituents
Carotene / Branched unsaturated hydrocarbon / Cycloalkene / Cyclic olefin / Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon / Unsaturated hydrocarbon / Olefin / Hydrocarbon / Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
cyclic carotene (CHEBI:17579) / C40 isoprenoids (tetraterpenes), Carotenoids (C02094) / C40 isoprenoids (tetraterpenes) (LMPR01070000)

Targets

1. Free radicals
Kind
Group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
References
  1. Dasgupta A. and Klein K. (2014). Antioxidants in food, vitamins and supplements. Elsevier.
  2. Lustgarten M., Muller F. and Van Remmen H. (2011). Handbook of the Biology of Aging (7th ed.). Academic press.
  3. Pattani K. (2010). Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer series: Head and Neck Cancer. Elsevier.

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symmetrically cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal using a dioxygenase mechanism.
Specific Function
Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase activity
Gene Name
BCO1
Uniprot ID
Q9HAY6
Uniprot Name
Beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase
Molecular Weight
62636.69 Da
References
  1. Pattani K. (2010). Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer series: Head and Neck Cancer. Elsevier.

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine p...
Gene Name
VLDLR
Uniprot ID
P98155
Uniprot Name
Very low-density lipoprotein receptor
Molecular Weight
96097.45 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name
RBP1
Uniprot ID
P09455
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
15850.13 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name
RBP2
Uniprot ID
P50120
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight
15706.595 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
IRBP shuttles 11-cis and all trans retinoids between the retinol isomerase in the pigment epithelium and the visual pigments in the photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Gene Name
RBP3
Uniprot ID
P10745
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 3
Molecular Weight
135361.46 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinol transporter activity
Specific Function
Delivers retinol from the liver stores to the peripheral tissues. In plasma, the RBP-retinol complex interacts with transthyretin, this prevents its loss by filtration through the kidney glomeruli.
Gene Name
RBP4
Uniprot ID
P02753
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 4
Molecular Weight
23009.8 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name
RBP5
Uniprot ID
P82980
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 5
Molecular Weight
15931.17 Da
References
  1. Combs G. (2012). The vitamins (4th ed.). Elsevier.

Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:20 / Updated on December 18, 2018 05:46