Identification

Name
Verapamil
Accession Number
DB00661  (APRD00335)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Iproveratril
  • Vérapamil
  • Verapamil
  • Verapamilo
  • Verapamilum
External IDs
CP-16,533-1 / D-365
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Verapamil hydrochlorideV3888OEY5R152-11-4DOQPXTMNIUCOSY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alti-verapamil - 120mgTablet120 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1990-12-312004-08-03Canada
Alti-verapamil - 80mgTablet80 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1990-12-312004-08-03Canada
CalanTablet, film coated120 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1984-09-10Not applicableUs
CalanTablet, film coated80 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1984-09-10Not applicableUs
Calan SRTablet, film coated, extended release180 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1989-12-15Not applicableUs
Calan SRTablet, film coated, extended release240 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1986-12-16Not applicableUs00025 1891 51 nlmimage10 4d132699
Calan SRTablet, film coated, extended release120 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1991-03-06Not applicableUs
Covera-HSTablet, extended release180 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1996-02-262016-10-13Us
Covera-HSTablet, extended release240 mgOralPfizer1997-11-132013-02-15Canada
Covera-HSTablet, extended release240 mg/1OralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1996-02-262016-10-13Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-verap SRTablet, extended release180 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-verap SRTablet, extended release120 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-verap SRTablet, extended release240 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-verap Tab 80mgTablet80 mgOralApotex Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-verap Tablet 120mgTablet120 mgOralApotex Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
VerapamilTablet, film coated, extended release240 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2012-11-192016-12-31Us
VerapamilTablet, film coated, extended release120 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2014-01-142016-03-31Us
VerapamilTablet, film coated, extended release120 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2012-11-192016-12-31Us
VerapamilTablet, film coated, extended release180 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2012-11-192017-07-03Us
VerapamilTablet, film coated, extended release180 mg/1OralSt. Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-02-05Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bosoptin (Bosnalijek) / Isoptin (Abbott) / Verisop (Gerard) / Vermin (Ratiopharm) / Vermine (Pharmasant) / Verogalid (Ivax) / Verogalid ER (Ivax) / Verpamil (Mylan) / Vertab (Trinity-Chiesi) / Vetrimil (CCPC) / Zolvera (Rosemont)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (180 mg) + Trandolapril (2 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbott2002-07-152010-11-12Canada
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg/1) + Trandolapril (2 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-27Not applicableUs
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (180 mg/1) + Trandolapril (2 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralAbbvie1996-10-22Not applicableUs
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg/1) + Trandolapril (4 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralAbbvie1996-10-22Not applicableUs
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg/1) + Trandolapril (4 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-06-25Not applicableUs00074 3290 13 nlmimage10 ec1d766b
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg) + Trandolapril (1 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbott2002-07-152010-11-12Canada
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg/1) + Trandolapril (1 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralAbbvie1996-10-222018-02-28Us
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg) + Trandolapril (4 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralBgp Pharma Ulc2002-07-15Not applicableCanada
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (180 mg/1) + Trandolapril (2 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-01-01Not applicableUs
TarkaVerapamil hydrochloride (240 mg) + Trandolapril (2 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralBgp Pharma Ulc2002-07-15Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
CJ0O37KU29
CAS number
52-53-9
Weight
Average: 454.6016
Monoisotopic: 454.283157714
Chemical Formula
C27H38N2O4
InChI Key
SGTNSNPWRIOYBX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H38N2O4/c1-20(2)27(19-28,22-10-12-24(31-5)26(18-22)33-7)14-8-15-29(3)16-13-21-9-11-23(30-4)25(17-21)32-6/h9-12,17-18,20H,8,13-16H2,1-7H3
IUPAC Name
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile
SMILES
COC1=C(OC)C=C(CCN(C)CCCC(C#N)(C(C)C)C2=CC(OC)=C(OC)C=C2)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and cluster headache prophylaxis.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Verapamil is an L-type calcium channel blocker that also has antiarrythmic activity. The R-enantiomer is more effective at reducing blood pressure compared to the S-enantiomer. However, the S-enantiomer is 20 times more potent than the R-enantiomer at prolonging the PR interval in treating arrhythmias.

Mechanism of action

Verapamil inhibits voltage-dependent calcium channels. Specifically, its effect on L-type calcium channels in the heart causes a reduction in ionotropy and chronotropy, thuis reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Verapamil's mechanism of effect in cluster headache is thought to be linked to its calcium-channel blocker effect, but which channel subtypes are involved is presently not known.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A
inhibitor
Human
UPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
inhibitor
Human
USodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
other
Human
UATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent serotonin transporter
other/unknown
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
Absorption

90%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

90%

Metabolism
Route of elimination

Approximately 70% of an administered dose is excreted as metabolites in the urine and 16% or more in the feces within 5 days. About 3% to 4% is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug.

Half life

2.8-7.4 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=8 mg/kg (i.v. in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Verapamil Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor---(G;G) / (C;G)G > CEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype require a lower dosage of verapamil to achieve a favourable rate-control response when treating atrial fibrillation.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
2-mercaptobenzothiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-mercaptobenzothiazole is combined with Verapamil.Vet Approved
3,4-DichloroisocoumarinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin.Experimental
4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl FluorideThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with 4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl Fluoride.Experimental
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Acebutolol.Approved
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acetyldigitoxin.Approved
AcetyldigoxinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acetyldigoxin.Experimental
Acetylsalicylic acidVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdinazolamThe metabolism of Adinazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Alclometasone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Alfentanil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinThe metabolism of Alfuzosin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe serum concentration of Aliskiren can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AllylestrenolThe metabolism of Allylestrenol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Alogliptin.Approved
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
AloxiprinVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aloxiprin.Experimental
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
AlprazolamThe metabolism of Alprazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanThe metabolism of Ambrisentan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AmbroxolThe metabolism of Ambroxol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmiodaroneVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
AmorolfineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amorolfine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Amprenavir.Approved
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnidulafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anidulafungin is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Antithrombin III humanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
ApremilastThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Artemether is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AsenapineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
AstemizoleThe metabolism of Astemizole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
AsunaprevirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Asunaprevir.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Atosiban.Approved, Investigational
Atracurium besylateVerapamil may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AvanafilThe serum concentration of Avanafil can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
AxitinibThe metabolism of Axitinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineThe metabolism of Azelastine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Azithromycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Bafilomycin A1The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bafilomycin A1 is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
BalsalazideVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BanoxantroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BatimastatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Batimastat.Experimental
BedaquilineThe metabolism of Bedaquiline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BefunololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BenazeprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BenzamidineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Benzamidine.Experimental
Benzoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzoic Acid is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BenzphetamineThe metabolism of Benzphetamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
BeractantVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.Approved
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BevantololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BexaroteneThe metabolism of Bexarotene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BezafibrateThe metabolism of Bezafibrate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BicalutamideThe metabolism of Bicalutamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BifonazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bifonazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BivalirudinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BopindololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Brefeldin AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brefeldin A is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BrinzolamideThe metabolism of Brinzolamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BrivaracetamThe metabolism of Brivaracetam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe metabolism of Bromazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
BromocriptineThe metabolism of Bromocriptine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe metabolism of Brompheniramine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BucindololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
BufuralolVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BunazosinBunazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Investigational
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BupranololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
BuprenorphineThe metabolism of Buprenorphine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Bupropion can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
BusulfanThe metabolism of Busulfan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ButenafineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butenafine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ButoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butoconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CabazitaxelThe metabolism of Cabazitaxel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CabergolineThe metabolism of Cabergoline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CabozantinibThe metabolism of Cabozantinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CalcitriolThe metabolism of Calcitriol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Nutraceutical
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.Approved
Calcium CarbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Carbonate.Approved
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.Approved
Calcium CitrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Citrate.Approved
Calcium glubionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium glubionate.Approved
Calcium GluceptateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Gluceptate.Approved
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.Approved, Vet Approved
Calcium lactateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate.Approved, Experimental, Investigational, Vet Approved
Calcium lactate gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate gluconate.Experimental
Calcium laevulateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium laevulate.Experimental
Calcium pangamateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium pangamate.Experimental
Calcium PhosphateThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Phosphate.Approved
CalfactantVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.Approved
CamostatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Camostat.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandicidinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candicidin is combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
CandoxatrilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CandoxatrilatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Candoxatrilat.Experimental
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
Capric acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Capric acid is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
CaptoprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Carbamazepine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Carbaspirin calciumVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe metabolism of Carbinoxamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CarbomycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Carbomycin.Vet Approved
CariprazineThe metabolism of Cariprazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaseinThe therapeutic efficacy of Verapamil can be decreased when used in combination with Casein.Approved
CaspofunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caspofungin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololThe metabolism of Celiprolol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CephalexinThe metabolism of Cephalexin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe metabolism of Cerivastatin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
CeruleninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cerulenin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CevimelineThe metabolism of Cevimeline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe metabolism of Chlordiazepoxide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChloroxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroxine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe metabolism of Chlorphenamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Cholecalciferol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Nutraceutical
CholesterolThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Cholesterol.Experimental, Investigational
Cholic AcidVerapamil may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
ChymostatinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Chymostatin.Experimental
CiclesonideThe metabolism of Ciclesonide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CiclopiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclopirox is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CilastatinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Cilastatin.Approved
CilazaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinacalcet can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramThe metabolism of Citalopram can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClindamycinThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Clobazam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ClofazimineThe metabolism of Clofazimine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ClofibrateThe metabolism of Clofibrate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe metabolism of clomethiazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe metabolism of Clonazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineClonidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Verapamil.Approved
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Verapamil.Approved, Nutraceutical
CloranololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClorazepateThe metabolism of Clorazepate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ClotiazepamThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clotrimazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Clozapine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Cocaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe metabolism of Codeine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated estrogensThe metabolism of Conjugated estrogens can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CopanlisibThe metabolism of Copanlisib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CordycepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cordycepin is combined with Verapamil.Investigational
Cortisone acetateThe metabolism of Cortisone acetate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Crizotinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CymarinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Cymarin.Experimental
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CytarabineThe metabolism of Cytarabine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Verapamil.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe metabolism of Daclatasvir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DantroleneDantrolene may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Verapamil.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Dapoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Investigational
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DarexabanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Darexaban.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Darifenacin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasabuvirThe metabolism of Dasabuvir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe metabolism of Deflazacort can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DelanzomibThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Delanzomib.Investigational
DelaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Delapril.Experimental
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
dersalazineVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of dersalazine.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Verapamil.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DeslanosideVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Deslanoside.Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe metabolism of Desvenlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DeutetrabenazineThe metabolism of Deutetrabenazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe metabolism of Dexamethasone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateThe metabolism of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DexlansoprazoleThe metabolism of Dexlansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DextropropoxypheneThe metabolism of Dextropropoxyphene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DiazepamThe metabolism of Diazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DichloropheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dichlorophene is combined with Verapamil.Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved
DienogestThe metabolism of Dienogest can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DiflunisalVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diflunisal.Approved
DigitoxinThe metabolism of Digitoxin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DigoxinThe metabolism of Digoxin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Digoxin Immune Fab (Ovine)Verapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Digoxin Immune Fab (Ovine).Approved
DihydrocodeineThe metabolism of Dihydrocodeine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Verapamil.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DisopyramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Disopyramide.Approved
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Disulfiram can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Docetaxel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DofetilideThe serum concentration of Dofetilide can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DorzolamideThe metabolism of Dorzolamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DuloxetineVerapamil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DutasterideThe metabolism of Dutasteride can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EcabetThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ecabet.Approved, Investigational
EconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Econazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfinaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efinaconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ElafinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Elafin.Investigational
ElbasvirThe metabolism of Elbasvir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ElvitegravirThe metabolism of Elvitegravir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnalkirenThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Enalkiren.Experimental
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpanololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
Epigallocatechin GallateThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Epigallocatechin Gallate.Investigational
EpinastineThe metabolism of Epinastine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EplerenoneThe serum concentration of Eplerenone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Eprosartan.Approved
ErgocalciferolThe metabolism of Ergocalciferol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Nutraceutical
Ergoloid mesylateThe metabolism of Ergoloid mesylate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ErgonovineThe metabolism of Ergonovine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ErgotamineThe metabolism of Ergotamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ErlotinibThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Esomeprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe metabolism of Estazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol valerate/DienogestThe metabolism of Estradiol valerate/Dienogest can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EstramustineThe metabolism of Estramustine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe metabolism of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe metabolism of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EszopicloneThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved
EthanolThe serum concentration of Ethanol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EthosuximideThe metabolism of Ethosuximide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EthylmorphineThe metabolism of Ethylmorphine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
EtizolamThe metabolism of Etizolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EtonogestrelThe metabolism of Etonogestrel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EtoposideThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe metabolism of Etravirine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ExemestaneThe metabolism of Exemestane can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
FaldaprevirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Faldaprevir.Investigational
FamciclovirThe metabolism of Famciclovir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FelbamateThe metabolism of Felbamate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenofibrateThe metabolism of Fenofibrate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Verapamil.Approved
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenticonazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenticonazole is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Verapamil.Approved
FexofenadineThe bioavailability of Fexofenadine can be increased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
FinasterideThe metabolism of Finasteride can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FingolimodVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FlecainideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Flecainide.Approved, Withdrawn
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FlucytosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flucytosine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
FlunisolideThe metabolism of Flunisolide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
FlunitrazepamThe metabolism of Flunitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
FluorometholoneThe metabolism of Fluorometholone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
FlurazepamThe metabolism of Flurazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe metabolism of Fluticasone furoate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe metabolism of Fluticasone propionate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FlutrimazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flutrimazole is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Fluvastatin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
FulvestrantThe metabolism of Fulvestrant can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabexateThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Gabexate.Investigational
GalantamineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
GefitinibThe metabolism of Gefitinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
GeldanamycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Geldanamycin.Experimental, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GitoformateVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Gitoformate.Experimental
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
GlyphosateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glyphosate is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
GM6001The metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with GM6001.Experimental
GranisetronThe metabolism of Granisetron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
GrazoprevirThe metabolism of Grazoprevir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe metabolism of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational, Withdrawn
GriseofulvinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Griseofulvin is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
GuacetisalVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HachimycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hachimycin is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
HalofantrineThe serum concentration of Halofantrine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
HaloproginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloprogin is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
HalothaneThe metabolism of Halothane can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
Hemoglobin crosfumarilVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HexetidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexetidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
HistamineThe metabolism of Histamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
HydrocortisoneThe metabolism of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe metabolism of Hydromorphone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe metabolism of Hydroxyprogesterone caproate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
IcotinibThe metabolism of Icotinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IdraparinuxThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Idraparinux.Investigational
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be reduced when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Verapamil resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
IloperidoneThe metabolism of Iloperidone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ImidafenacinThe metabolism of Imidafenacin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ImiquimodThe metabolism of Imiquimod can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
IndacaterolThe metabolism of Indacaterol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndenololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Withdrawn
Ipratropium bromideThe metabolism of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IrinotecanThe metabolism of Irinotecan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Isavuconazonium can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Verapamil.Approved
IsoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoflurophateThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvabradineVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.Approved
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
IvermectinThe metabolism of Ivermectin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
IxabepiloneThe metabolism of Ixabepilone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
IxazomibThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ixazomib.Approved
JosamycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Josamycin.Approved, Investigational
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
KetobemidoneThe metabolism of Ketobemidone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KitasamycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Kitasamycin.Experimental
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lacidipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LacosamideVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.Approved
Lanatoside CVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lanatoside C.Experimental
LandiololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LanreotideVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.Approved
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Lapatinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LaquinimodThe metabolism of Laquinimod can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenvatinibThe metabolism of Lenvatinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LepirudinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LercanidipineThe metabolism of Lercanidipine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LetaxabanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Letaxaban.Investigational
LetrozoleThe metabolism of Letrozole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LevocetirizineThe metabolism of Levocetirizine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LevodopaVerapamil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe metabolism of Levomethadyl Acetate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe metabolism of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe metabolism of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe metabolism of Levothyroxine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
LisinoprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisurideThe metabolism of Lisuride can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LithiumVerapamil may increase the neurotoxic activities of Lithium.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofexidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
LoperamideThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe metabolism of Loratadine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
LucinactantVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Lumefantrine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
MacitentanThe metabolism of Macitentan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Magnesium HydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Magnesium Hydroxide.Approved
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.Approved, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MaravirocThe metabolism of Maraviroc can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MebendazoleThe metabolism of Mebendazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe metabolism of Medroxyprogesterone acetate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MefloquineThe metabolism of Mefloquine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MelagatranThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Melagatran.Experimental
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
MepartricinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepartricin is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
MepindololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesalazineVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Mesalazine.Approved
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Verapamil.Approved
MethadoneThe metabolism of Methadone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MethaqualoneThe metabolism of Methaqualone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved
MethoxsalenThe metabolism of Methoxsalen can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Methyl salicylateVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe metabolism of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyltestosteroneThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MetildigoxinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metildigoxin.Experimental
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Verapamil.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MetronidazoleThe metabolism of Metronidazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MevastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mevastatin is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MibefradilThe metabolism of Mibefradil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MicafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Micafungin is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe metabolism of Midazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
MidodrineVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.Approved
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiltefosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miltefosine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Verapamil.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Mirabegron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MivacuriumVerapamil may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Modafinil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Moexipril.Approved
MonensinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Monensin is combined with Verapamil.Vet Approved
MontelukastThe metabolism of Montelukast can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
MorphineThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moxonidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe metabolism of Mycophenolate mofetil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
MyxothiazolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Myxothiazol is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-ProlineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline.Experimental
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Nadolol.Approved
NafamostatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NaloxoneThe metabolism of Naloxone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
NatamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Natamycin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeratinibThe metabolism of Neratinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NifuratelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifuratel is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
Nikkomycin ZThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nikkomycin Z is combined with Verapamil.Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Nilotinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe metabolism of Nilvadipine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NitrazepamThe metabolism of Nitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NitroaspirinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved
NitroxolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroxoline is combined with Verapamil.Approved
NorethisteroneThe metabolism of Norethisterone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
NorgestrelThe metabolism of Norgestrel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
NystatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nystatin is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Obinutuzumab is combined with Verapamil.Approved
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
OdanacatibThe metabolism of Odanacatib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
OleandomycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Oleandomycin.Vet Approved
OleandrinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Oleandrin.Experimental, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe metabolism of Olopatadine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
OlsalazineVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Olsalazine.Approved
OmapatrilatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Omeprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OmoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Omoconazole is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
OrphenadrineThe metabolism of Orphenadrine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
OtamixabanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OuabainVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Ouabain.Approved
OxazepamThe metabolism of Oxazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
OxiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxiconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
OxybutyninThe metabolism of Oxybutynin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe metabolism of Oxymorphone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
pafuramidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when pafuramidine is combined with Verapamil.Investigational
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PalonosetronThe metabolism of Palonosetron can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Panobinostat can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Papaverine.Approved
ParamethadioneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ParamethasoneThe metabolism of Paramethasone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ParecoxibThe metabolism of Parecoxib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ParicalcitolThe metabolism of Paricalcitol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ParitaprevirThe metabolism of Paritaprevir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PasireotideVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentamidine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelThe metabolism of Perampanel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PergolideThe metabolism of Pergolide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Perindopril.Approved
PermethrinThe metabolism of Permethrin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe metabolism of Perospirone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PeruvosideVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Peruvoside.Experimental
PethidineThe metabolism of Pethidine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe metabolism of Phenoxybenzamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PhenprocoumonThe metabolism of Phenprocoumon can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentolamine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
PhosphoramidonThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Phosphoramidon.Experimental
PilocarpineThe metabolism of Pilocarpine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Pimecrolimus can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PinacidilThe metabolism of Pinacidil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Pindolol.Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PodofiloxThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PomalidomideThe metabolism of Pomalidomide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PonatinibThe metabolism of Ponatinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Poractant alfaVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PractololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Practolol.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
PrasteroneThe metabolism of Prasterone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Nutraceutical
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PravastatinThe metabolism of Pravastatin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PrazepamThe metabolism of Prazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit
PraziquantelThe metabolism of Praziquantel can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PrednisoloneThe metabolism of Prednisolone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe metabolism of Prednisone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrinomastatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Prinomastat.Investigational
ProchlorperazineThe metabolism of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Propoxyphene napsylateThe metabolism of Propoxyphene napsylate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ProscillaridinVerapamil may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Proscillaridin.Experimental
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
PyrazinamideThe metabolism of Pyrazinamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
PyrrolnitrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pyrrolnitrin is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinacrineThe metabolism of Quinacrine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
QuinaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineQuinidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Rabeprazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RacecadotrilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Racecadotril.Investigational
RadicicolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Radicicol is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
RaloxifeneThe metabolism of Raloxifene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RamelteonThe metabolism of Ramelteon can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ramipril.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumVerapamil may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ReboxetineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Verapamil.Approved
RemikirenThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Remikiren.Approved
RepaglinideThe metabolism of Repaglinide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RetapamulinThe metabolism of Retapamulin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe metabolism of Rilpivirine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RimonabantThe metabolism of Rimonabant can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RivastigmineVerapamil may increase the bradycardic activities of Rivastigmine.Approved, Investigational
RofecoxibThe metabolism of Rofecoxib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational, Withdrawn
RolapitantThe metabolism of Rolapitant can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RomidepsinThe metabolism of Romidepsin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Ropinirole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RotigotineThe metabolism of Rotigotine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RoxithromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RucaparibThe metabolism of Rucaparib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved
S-3304The metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with S-3304.Investigational
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SafinamideThe metabolism of Safinamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Salicylhydroxamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylhydroxamic Acid is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
SalmeterolThe serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe metabolism of Selexipag can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SertaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertaconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SertindoleThe metabolism of Sertindole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SevofluraneThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
SibutramineThe metabolism of Sibutramine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
SildenafilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SinefunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sinefungin is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
SirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sirolimus is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Sitagliptin.Approved, Investigational
SivelestatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Sivelestat.Investigational
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SolifenacinThe metabolism of Solifenacin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SolithromycinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Solithromycin.Investigational
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe metabolism of Sorafenib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SpiramycinThe metabolism of Spiramycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SpiraprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Verapamil.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe metabolism of Sufentanil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SulconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe metabolism of Sulfinpyrazone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SunitinibThe metabolism of Sunitinib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
SuvorexantThe serum concentration of Suvorexant can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilThe metabolism of Tadalafil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TalinololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TamsulosinThe metabolism of Tamsulosin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TasosartanThe metabolism of Tasosartan can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Taurochenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Taurochenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Experimental
TavaboroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tavaborole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinTelithromycin may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe metabolism of Temazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TemocaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe metabolism of Temsirolimus can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TeniposideThe metabolism of Teniposide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerbinafineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbinafine is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TerfenadineThe metabolism of Terfenadine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TertatololVerapamil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TesmilifeneThe metabolism of Tesmilifene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TetracyclineThe metabolism of Tetracycline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiorphanThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Thiorphan.Experimental
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Thiotepa can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ThymolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thymol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TiagabineThe metabolism of Tiagabine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Ticagrelor can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TinidazoleThe metabolism of Tinidazole can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TioconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tioconazole is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TiotropiumThe metabolism of Tiotropium can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolazoline is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Withdrawn
TolciclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolciclate is combined with Verapamil.Experimental
TolnaftateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolnaftate is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ToremifeneThe metabolism of Toremifene can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe metabolism of Tramadol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
Trastuzumab emtansineThe metabolism of Trastuzumab emtansine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TrazodoneThe metabolism of Trazodone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe metabolism of Triamcinolone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Verapamil.Approved
TriazolamThe metabolism of Triazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Experimental
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimetrexateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimetrexate is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational, Withdrawn
Trolamine salicylateVerapamil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Trolamine salicylate.Approved
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Troleandomycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
TylosinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tylosin.Vet Approved
UbenimexThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ubenimex.Experimental, Investigational
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Experimental
UdenafilThe metabolism of Udenafil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
UlinastatinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ulinastatin.Investigational
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
UrapidilUrapidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.Investigational
ValbenazineThe metabolism of Valbenazine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe metabolism of Valdecoxib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibThe metabolism of Vandetanib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VanoxerineThe metabolism of Vanoxerine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
VardenafilThe metabolism of Vardenafil can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VelpatasvirThe metabolism of Velpatasvir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenetoclaxThe metabolism of Venetoclax can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VicrivirocThe metabolism of Vicriviroc can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Investigational
VilanterolThe metabolism of Vilanterol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VildagliptinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Vildagliptin.Approved, Investigational
VinblastineThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
VincristineThe metabolism of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
VindesineThe serum concentration of Vindesine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe metabolism of Vinorelbine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
VismodegibThe metabolism of Vismodegib can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe metabolism of Vortioxetine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoxilaprevirThe metabolism of Voxilaprevir can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
XimelagatranThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
YohimbineThe metabolism of Yohimbine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Vet Approved
Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone.Experimental
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonThe metabolism of Zaleplon can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZidovudineThe metabolism of Zidovudine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZofenoprilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
ZolpidemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
ZomepiracThe metabolism of Zomepirac can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Withdrawn
ZonisamideThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Avoid natural licorice.
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Philippe Baudier, Arthur De Boeck, Jacques Fossion, "Novel galenic forms of verapamil, their preparation and medicines containing said novel galenic forms." U.S. Patent US4859469, issued April, 1987.

US4859469
General References
  1. Bellamy WT: P-glycoproteins and multidrug resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996;36:161-83. [PubMed:8725386]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01850
KEGG Drug
D02356
KEGG Compound
C07188
PubChem Compound
2520
PubChem Substance
46508158
ChemSpider
2425
BindingDB
81939
ChEBI
77733
ChEMBL
CHEMBL6966
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000040
PharmGKB
PA451868
IUPHAR
2406
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Verapamil
ATC Codes
C08DA51 — Verapamil, combinationsC08DA01 — VerapamilC09BB10 — Trandolapril and verapamil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:28.92 — Miscellaneous Calcium-channel Blocking Agents
FDA label
Download (1.9 MB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1CompletedNot AvailableDrug Dependence1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interactions / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug-Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of ASP015K1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticChronic Subjective Dizziness / Vestibular Migraine1
1CompletedOtherDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug-induced Surface ECG Changes1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular System Disease / Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions1
1RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentCD30-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1, 2CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPolyps, Nasal / Sinusitis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain Cancer / Cancers / Meningiomas1
2CompletedTreatmentDravet Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCluster Headache1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentVentricular Arrythmias1
3CompletedTreatmentArrythmias / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypertensive1
3CompletedTreatmentMania1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedPreventionRenal Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes / Hypertensive1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes / Hypertensive / Proteinuria1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Disease, Ischemic1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertensive2
4CompletedTreatmentHypertensive / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentParoxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia1
4CompletedTreatmentRapid Ventricular Response Atrial Fibrillation1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / General Surgery / Hypoglycemia1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchCerebral Vasospasm1
4RecruitingTreatmentReversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome1
4TerminatedPreventionKeloid Scars1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Cardiomyopathy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHeart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) / Myocardial Diseases / Prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Verapamil Toxicity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArrythmias / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPolyps, Nasal / Sinusitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCatamenial Epilepsy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Elan drug delivery inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Fsc laboratories inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Solopak medical products inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral80 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral180 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral180 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral240 mg/1
TabletOral120 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral240 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral120 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral120 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral180 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral240 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous2.5 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2.5 mg/mL
TabletOral120 mg/1
TabletOral240 mg/1
TabletOral40 mg/1
TabletOral80 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral120 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral240 mg/301
Tablet, film coatedOral120 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral40 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral80 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral120 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral180 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral240 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous2.5 mg
SolutionIntravenous2.5 mg
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral120 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral180 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral240 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral360 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral120 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral180 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral240 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral300 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Verelan 360 mg 24 Hour Capsule6.82USD capsule
Verelan 360 mg cap pellet6.73USD pellet
Verelan pm 300 mg cap pellet5.87USD pellet
Verelan 240 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.76USD capsule
Verelan 240 mg cap pellet4.58USD pellet
Verelan 180 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.22USD capsule
Verelan 180 mg cap pellet4.06USD pellet
Verelan pm 200 mg cap pellet4.04USD pellet
Verelan 120 mg cap pellet3.87USD pellet
Verapamil HCl CR 300 mg 24 Hour Capsule3.82USD capsule
Isoptin sr 240 mg tablet3.32USD tablet
Verapamil hcl powder3.24USD g
Calan SR 240 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.15USD tab
Isoptin SR 240 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.14USD tab
Verelan pm 100 mg cap pellet3.13USD pellet
Calan sr 240 mg caplet3.09USD caplet
Covera-HS 240 mg 24 Hour tablet3.09USD tablet
Covera-hs 240 mg tablet sa2.97USD tablet
Isoptin sr 180 mg tablet2.9USD tablet
Calan SR 180 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.8USD tab
Isoptin SR 180 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.74USD tab
Calan sr 180 mg caplet2.7USD caplet
Verapamil HCl CR 200 mg 24 Hour Capsule2.62USD capsule
Isoptin sr 120 mg tablet2.29USD tablet
Calan SR 120 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.27USD tab
Covera-HS 180 mg 24 Hour tablet2.2USD tablet
Isoptin SR 120 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.16USD tab
Calan sr 120 mg caplet2.13USD caplet
Covera-hs 180 mg tablet sa2.11USD tablet
Verapamil HCl CR 360 mg 24 Hour Capsule2.1USD capsule
Verapamil HCl CR 100 mg 24 Hour Capsule2.04USD capsule
Isoptin Sr 240 mg Sustained-Release Tablet2.03USD tablet
Calan sr 240 mg caplet sa1.77USD caplet
Verapamil HCl CR 240 mg 24 Hour Capsule1.69USD capsule
Verapamil HCl CR 240 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.6USD tab
Calan 120 mg tablet1.56USD tablet
Isoptin Sr 180 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.52USD tablet
Verapamil HCl CR 180 mg 24 Hour Capsule1.5USD capsule
Calan sr 180 mg caplet sa1.46USD caplet
Verapamil HCl CR 120 mg 24 Hour Capsule1.43USD capsule
Verapamil HCl CR 180 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.41USD tab
Isoptin Sr 120 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.34USD tablet
Calan 80 mg tablet1.25USD tablet
Verapamil 2.5 mg/ml vial1.18USD ml
Verapamil HCl CR 120 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.12USD tab
Apo-Verap Sr 240 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.91USD tablet
Mylan-Verapamil Sr 240 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.91USD tablet
Novo-Veramil Sr 240 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.91USD tablet
Pms-Verapamil Sr 240 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.91USD tablet
Calan 40 mg tablet0.76USD tablet
Apo-Verap Sr 120 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.72USD tablet
Mylan-Verapamil Sr 120 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.72USD tablet
Verapamil HCl 120 mg tablet0.71USD tablet
Apo-Verap Sr 180 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.69USD tablet
Mylan-Verapamil Sr 180 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.69USD tablet
Verapamil HCl 80 mg tablet0.56USD tablet
Apo-Verap 120 mg Tablet0.45USD tablet
Mylan-Verapamil 120 mg Tablet0.45USD tablet
Nu-Verap 120 mg Tablet0.45USD tablet
Verapamil 120 mg tablet0.39USD tablet
Verapamil 80 mg tablet0.31USD tablet
Verapamil HCl 40 mg tablet0.29USD tablet
Apo-Verap 80 mg Tablet0.29USD tablet
Mylan-Verapamil 80 mg Tablet0.29USD tablet
Nu-Verap 80 mg Tablet0.29USD tablet
Verapamil 40 mg tablet0.28USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5785994No1992-10-222009-10-22Us
US6096339No1997-04-042017-04-04Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)243-246 °C at 1.00E-02 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility4.47 mg/LNot Available
logP3.79HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.58ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.92SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00394 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.23ALOGPS
logP5.04ChemAxon
logS-5.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.68ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.95 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity132.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9371
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6323
Caco-2 permeable+0.738
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7874
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.9056
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.855
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6259
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8029
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8706
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7657
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9553
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9181
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8393
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6463
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.4137 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7687
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8188
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0udi-3519000000-b5e0b9e0caac5cb57222
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0702900000-6a46ea2d5eed6d8b01eb
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-4109800000-80d342090a0be3344e82
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-054w-0954400000-2def387c7c93ab211423
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-4cde9a4b3a4f83d16afc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-980b47834e505d54a0e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902800000-ae024239c46b33917426
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-81d1159b3102cff76218
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-d9c344fee7b45b4030e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0914000000-070bdb975910e9aae99c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0390000000-f41d80462c5d06c4f001
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0097-2980000000-9a2ab0bcab33f7eaac6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0900000000-252a9989a8511cb2db80
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-4fd6ca2c6c19c3bbf8f0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-4365a47b2dc2f86bb272
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-e6a2b357160bf5b92c22
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902400000-d8eac2ccd0a767c7e432
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-688f3c2345c5d9ccb8a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-cd09f8a2be876936f662
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0918000000-76641dd6dbc5cb05e79a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-05ea95eb1f39b6515212
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902600000-a675e624692c25472ce8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-70d820628d2613557239
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-e3ca24cf75d574df08a8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uyi-0900000000-f3a9fa002c56d3e5689a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zg0-2900000000-101e077b890671063633
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-84b4516ac84e6912cc15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902600000-bc1701c307e45ee4dcd7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-6fbdab598bcb6147a4bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-ce61116806eaa908681c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0900000000-ad3f25e02a7c8e66fb6a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zgr-2900000000-792b9009086561f6c398
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0918000000-e7a5a3f8c88dc40683fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-4cde9a4b3a4f83d16afc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-9a5c5240148f82cc6add
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902800000-ae024239c46b33917426
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-81d1159b3102cff76218
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-2411d65dfe09741dde81
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0914000000-0463345a8ab0de7aa99e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-42074ab645b7af0ef79f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zgi-0900000000-20360f78435d5f482709
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0819000000-7f68ebd6e344adf12101
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0918000000-d3727bbe601b80eabfb3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0100900000-0a928f78000f291f031d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0902600000-40f800e4a364d9ca214c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-4dea228d69d59705fc18
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0500900000-c0bc440571b30d4b5b27
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-0900300000-47a59c15bdbcbc62d6c6
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylbutylamines. These are compounds containing a phenylbutylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the fourth carbon by an butan-1-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylbutylamines
Direct Parent
Phenylbutylamines
Alternative Parents
Dimethoxybenzenes / Phenylpropanes / Phenethylamines / Phenoxy compounds / Anisoles / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / Trialkylamines / Nitriles / Organopnictogen compounds
show 1 more
Substituents
Phenylbutylamine / Dimethoxybenzene / O-dimethoxybenzene / Phenethylamine / Phenylpropane / Anisole / Phenol ether / Phenoxy compound / Methoxybenzene / Alkyl aryl ether
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, aromatic ether, nitrile, polyether (CHEBI:77733)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Dilmac N, Hilliard N, Hockerman GH: Molecular determinants of frequency dependence and Ca2+ potentiation of verapamil block in the pore region of Cav1.2. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;66(5):1236-47. Epub 2004 Jul 30. [PubMed:15286207]
  2. Morel N, Buryi V, Feron O, Gomez JP, Christen MO, Godfraind T: The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;125(5):1005-12. [PubMed:9846638]
  3. Patel MK, Clunn GF, Lymn JS, Austin O, Hughes AD: Effect of serum withdrawal on the contribution of L-type calcium channels (CaV1.2) to intracellular Ca2+ responses and chemotaxis in cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;145(6):811-7. [PubMed:15880143]
  4. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID
Q01668
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D
Molecular Weight
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1F
Uniprot ID
O60840
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F
Molecular Weight
220675.9 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID
Q13698
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
Molecular Weight
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB1
Uniprot ID
Q02641
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB2
Uniprot ID
Q08289
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB3
Uniprot ID
P54284
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54531.425 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB4
Uniprot ID
O00305
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4
Molecular Weight
58168.625 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID
Q9P0X4
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
Molecular Weight
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID
O43497
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
Molecular Weight
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Freeze BS, McNulty MM, Hanck DA: State-dependent verapamil block of the cloned human Ca(v)3.1 T-type Ca(2+) channel. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):718-26. Epub 2006 May 12. [PubMed:16699084]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID
Q00975
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
Molecular Weight
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1A
Uniprot ID
O00555
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A
Molecular Weight
282362.39 Da
References
  1. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the ...
Gene Name
KCNH2
Uniprot ID
Q12809
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
Molecular Weight
126653.52 Da
References
  1. Duan JJ, Ma JH, Zhang PH, Wang XP, Zou AR, Tu DN: Verapamil blocks HERG channel by the helix residue Y652 and F656 in the S6 transmembrane domain. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007 Jul;28(7):959-67. [PubMed:17588331]
  2. Cheng HC, Incardona J, McCullough B: Isolated perfused and paced guinea pig heart to test for drug-induced changes of the QT interval. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2006 Nov-Dec;54(3):278-87. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16507347]
  3. Schneider J, Hauser R, Andreas JO, Linz K, Jahnel U: Differential effects of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) blocking agents on QT duration variability in conscious dogs. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 4;512(1):53-60. [PubMed:15814090]
  4. Ridley JM, Dooley PC, Milnes JT, Witchel HJ, Hancox JC: Lidoflazine is a high affinity blocker of the HERG K(+)channel. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 May;36(5):701-5. [PubMed:15135665]
  5. Shimizu W, Aiba T, Antzelevitch C: Specific therapy based on the genotype and cellular mechanism in inherited cardiac arrhythmias. Long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(12):1561-72. [PubMed:15892662]
  6. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Milberg P, Reinsch N, Osada N, Wasmer K, Monnig G, Stypmann J, Breithardt G, Haverkamp W, Eckardt L: Verapamil prevents torsade de pointes by reduction of transmural dispersion of repolarization and suppression of early afterdepolarizations in an intact heart model of LQT3. Basic Res Cardiol. 2005 Jul;100(4):365-71. Epub 2005 Jun 10. [PubMed:15944809]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage ...
Gene Name
KCNJ11
Uniprot ID
Q14654
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
Molecular Weight
43540.375 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Yamada S, Kane GC, Behfar A, Liu XK, Dyer RB, Faustino RS, Miki T, Seino S, Terzic A: Protection conferred by myocardial ATP-sensitive K+ channels in pressure overload-induced congestive heart failure revealed in KCNJ11 Kir6.2-null mutant. J Physiol. 2006 Dec 15;577(Pt 3):1053-65. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17038430]
  3. Shigeto M, Katsura M, Matsuda M, Ohkuma S, Kaku K: Nateglinide and mitiglinide, but not sulfonylureas, induce insulin secretion through a mechanism mediated by calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jul;322(1):1-7. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17409272]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  2. Brown NL, Sirugue O, Worcel M: The effects of some slow channel blocking drugs on high affinity serotonin uptake by rat brain synaptosomes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 9;123(1):161-5. [PubMed:2940099]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Shibata K, Hirasawa A, Foglar R, Ogawa S, Tsujimoto G: Effects of quinidine and verapamil on human cardiovascular alpha1-adrenoceptors. Circulation. 1998 Apr 7;97(13):1227-30. [PubMed:9570190]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Shibata K, Hirasawa A, Foglar R, Ogawa S, Tsujimoto G: Effects of quinidine and verapamil on human cardiovascular alpha1-adrenoceptors. Circulation. 1998 Apr 7;97(13):1227-30. [PubMed:9570190]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Shibata K, Hirasawa A, Foglar R, Ogawa S, Tsujimoto G: Effects of quinidine and verapamil on human cardiovascular alpha1-adrenoceptors. Circulation. 1998 Apr 7;97(13):1227-30. [PubMed:9570190]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Fahey JM, Daily JP, Greenblatt DJ: Induction of P-glycoprotein expression by HIV protease inhibitors in cell culture. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16;14(9):1287-9. [PubMed:10894301]
  2. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. [PubMed:12387747]
  3. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137]
  4. Kawahara I, Kato Y, Suzuki H, Achira M, Ito K, Crespi CL, Sugiyama Y: Selective inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by N-[2(R)-hydroxy-1(S)-indanyl]-5-[2(S)-(1, 1-dimethylethylaminocarbonyl)-4-[(furo[2, 3-b]pyridin-5-yl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl]-4(S)-hydroxy-2(R)-phenylmethy lpentanamide and P-glycoprotein by valspodar in gene transfectant systems. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Oct;28(10):1238-43. [PubMed:10997946]
  5. Fujita R, Ishikawa M, Takayanagi M, Takayanagi Y, Sasaki K: Enhancement of doxorubicin activity in multidrug-resistant cells by mefloquine. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;22(5):281-4. [PubMed:11031728]
  6. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287]
  7. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514]
  8. Leonessa F, Kim JH, Ghiorghis A, Kulawiec RJ, Hammer C, Talebian A, Clarke R: C-7 analogues of progesterone as potent inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. J Med Chem. 2002 Jan 17;45(2):390-8. [PubMed:11784143]
  9. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945]
  10. Zhang S, Morris ME: Effects of the flavonoids biochanin A, morin, phloretin, and silymarin on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1258-67. [PubMed:12604704]
  11. Horie K, Tang F, Borchardt RT: Isolation and characterization of Caco-2 subclones expressing high levels of multidrug resistance protein efflux transporter. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):161-8. [PubMed:12636153]
  12. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  13. van der Sandt IC, Blom-Roosemalen MC, de Boer AG, Breimer DD: Specificity of doxorubicin versus rhodamine-123 in assessing P-glycoprotein functionality in the LLC-PK1, LLC-PK1:MDR1 and Caco-2 cell lines. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2000 Sep;11(3):207-14. [PubMed:11042226]
  14. Ibrahim S, Peggins J, Knapton A, Licht T, Aszalos A: Influence of antipsychotic, antiemetic, and Ca(2+) channel blocker drugs on the cellular accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin: P-glycoprotein modulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Dec;295(3):1276-83. [PubMed:11082465]
  15. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Evaluation of the interaction of loratadine and desloratadine with P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Aug;29(8):1080-3. [PubMed:11454724]
  16. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. [PubMed:12649369]
  17. Wils P, Phung-Ba V, Warnery A, Lechardeur D, Raeissi S, Hidalgo IJ, Scherman D: Polarized transport of docetaxel and vinblastine mediated by P-glycoprotein in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Oct 7;48(7):1528-30. [PubMed:7945455]
  18. Hait WN, Gesmonde JF, Murren JR, Yang JM, Chen HX, Reiss M: Terfenadine (Seldane): a new drug for restoring sensitivity to multidrug resistant cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jan 26;45(2):401-6. [PubMed:8094615]
  19. Pouliot JF, L'Heureux F, Liu Z, Prichard RK, Georges E: Reversal of P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance by ivermectin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 10;53(1):17-25. [PubMed:8960059]
  20. Kuhnel JM, Perrot JY, Faussat AM, Marie JP, Schwaller MA: Functional assay of multidrug resistant cells using JC-1, a carbocyanine fluorescent probe. Leukemia. 1997 Jul;11(7):1147-55. [PubMed:9205004]
  21. Kim AE, Dintaman JM, Waddell DS, Silverman JA: Saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, is transported by P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1439-45. [PubMed:9732409]
  22. Bebawy M, Morris MB, Roufogalis BD: A continuous fluorescence assay for the study of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux using inside-out membrane vesicles. Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 15;268(2):270-7. [PubMed:10075817]
  23. Golstein PE, Boom A, van Geffel J, Jacobs P, Masereel B, Beauwens R: P-glycoprotein inhibition by glibenclamide and related compounds. Pflugers Arch. 1999 Apr;437(5):652-60. [PubMed:10087141]
  24. Jonsson O, Behnam-Motlagh P, Persson M, Henriksson R, Grankvist K: Increase in doxorubicin cytotoxicity by carvedilol inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Dec 1;58(11):1801-6. [PubMed:10571255]
  25. Eagling VA, Profit L, Back DJ: Inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir by grapefruit juice components. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;48(4):543-52. [PubMed:10583025]
  26. Choi CH, Kim JH, Kim SH: Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR by 5,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone and SAR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 30;320(3):672-9. [PubMed:15240100]
  27. Honda Y, Ushigome F, Koyabu N, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Effects of grapefruit juice and orange juice components on P-glycoprotein- and MRP2-mediated drug efflux. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;143(7):856-64. Epub 2004 Oct 25. [PubMed:15504753]
  28. Hu K, Morris ME: Effects of benzyl-, phenethyl-, and alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanates on P-glycoprotein- and MRP1-mediated transport. J Pharm Sci. 2004 Jul;93(7):1901-11. [PubMed:15176077]
  29. Lee BH, Lee CO, Kwon MJ, Yi KY, Yoo SE, Choi SU: Differential effects of the optical isomers of KR30031 on cardiotoxicity and on multidrug resistance reversal activity. Anticancer Drugs. 2003 Feb;14(2):175-81. [PubMed:12569305]
  30. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  31. Petri N, Tannergren C, Rungstad D, Lennernas H: Transport characteristics of fexofenadine in the Caco-2 cell model. Pharm Res. 2004 Aug;21(8):1398-404. [PubMed:15359574]
  32. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309]
  33. Santoni-Rugiu E, Silverman JA: Functional characterization of the rat mdr1b encoded P-glycoprotein: not all inducing agents are substrates. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Nov;18(11):2255-63. [PubMed:9395229]
  34. Sieczkowski E, Lehner C, Ambros PF, Hohenegger M: Double impact on p-glycoprotein by statins enhances doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 1;126(9):2025-35. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24885. [PubMed:19739078]
  35. Chiu LY, Ko JL, Lee YJ, Yang TY, Tee YT, Sheu GT: L-type calcium channel blockers reverse docetaxel and vincristine-induced multidrug resistance independent of ABCB1 expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Toxicol Lett. 2010 Feb 15;192(3):408-18. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19944135]
  36. Karlsson JE, Heddle C, Rozkov A, Rotticci-Mulder J, Tuvesson O, Hilgendorf C, Andersson TB: High-activity p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 2, and breast cancer resistance protein membrane vesicles prepared from transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293-epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):705-14. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028886. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071452]
  37. Jutabha P, Wempe MF, Anzai N, Otomo J, Kadota T, Endou H: Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human P-glycoprotein: probing trans- and cis-inhibitory effects on [3H]vinblastine and [3H]digoxin efflux. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Jan;61(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 21. [PubMed:19631272]
  38. Kugawa F, Suzuki T, Miyata M, Tomono K, Tamanoi F: Construction of a model cell line for the assay of MDR1 (multi drug resistance gene-1) substrates/inhibitors using HeLa cells. Pharmazie. 2009 May;64(5):296-300. [PubMed:19530439]
  39. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [PubMed:19541926]
  40. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273]
  41. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9092-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [PubMed:19319690]
  42. Pauli-Magnus C, von Richter O, Burk O, Ziegler A, Mettang T, Eichelbaum M, Fromm MF: Characterization of the major metabolites of verapamil as substrates and inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 May;293(2):376-82. [PubMed:10773005]
  43. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674]
  44. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684]
  45. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]
  46. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]
  47. Dagenais C, Graff CL, Pollack GM: Variable modulation of opioid brain uptake by P-glycoprotein in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 15;67(2):269-76. [PubMed:14698039]
  48. Borgnia MJ, Eytan GD, Assaraf YG: Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3163-71. [PubMed:8621716]
  49. Collett A, Tanianis-Hughes J, Hallifax D, Warhurst G: Predicting P-glycoprotein effects on oral absorption: correlation of transport in Caco-2 with drug pharmacokinetics in wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice in vivo. Pharm Res. 2004 May;21(5):819-26. [PubMed:15180340]
  50. Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J: Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache. 2009 Jan;49(1):117-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01298.x. [PubMed:19125880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. [PubMed:12036927]
  2. Bai J, Lai L, Yeo HC, Goh BC, Tan TM: Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) mediates efflux of bimane-glutathione. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;36(2):247-57. [PubMed:14643890]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
Details
6. Bile salt export pump
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Lespine A, Dupuy J, Orlowski S, Nagy T, Glavinas H, Krajcsi P, Alvinerie M: Interaction of ivermectin with multidrug resistance proteins (MRP1, 2 and 3). Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Feb 25;159(3):169-79. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [PubMed:16384552]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612]
  2. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651]
  2. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. [PubMed:10825452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Ozvegy-Laczka C, Hegedus T, Varady G, Ujhelly O, Schuetz JD, Varadi A, Keri G, Orfi L, Nemet K, Sarkadi B: High-affinity interaction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with the ABCG2 multidrug transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Jun;65(6):1485-95. [PubMed:15155841]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Oostendorp RL, van de Steeg E, van der Kruijssen CM, Beijnen JH, Kenworthy KE, Schinkel AH, Schellens JH: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 mediates transport of Gimatecan and BNP1350 and can be inhibited by several classic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 and/or ABCG2 inhibitors. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Apr;37(4):917-23. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.024901. Epub 2009 Jan 12. [PubMed:19139163]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34