Identification

Name
Chromium
Accession Number
DB11136
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Chromium is a transition element with the chemical symbol Cr and atomic number 24 that belongs to Group 6 of the periodic table. It is used in various chemical, industrial and manufacturing applications such as wood preservation and metallurgy. The uses of chromium compounds depend on the valency of chromium, where trivalent Cr (III) compounds are used for dietary Cr supplementation and hexavalent Cr (VI) compounds are used as corrosion inhibitors in commercial settings and are known to be human carcinogens [5]. Humans can be exposed to chromium via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal or ocular exposure [6]. Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered to be an essential dietary trace element as it is involved in metabolism of blood glucose, regulation of insulin resistance and metabolism of lipids. Clinical trials and other studies suggest the evidence of chromium intake improving glucose tolerance in patients with Type I and II diabetes, however its clinical application in the standard management of type II diabetes mellitus is not established. Chromium deficiency has been associated with a diabetic-like state, impaired growth, decreased fertility and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases [1, 2, 5].

According to the National Institute of Health, the daily dietary reference intake (DRI) of chromium for adult male and non-pregnant female are 35 μg and 25 μg, respectively [7]. Chromium picolinate capsules may be used as nutritional adjuvant in patients with or at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve blood sugar metabolism and stabilize the levels of serum cholesterol. Chromium chloride is available as an intravenous injection for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) [Label].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Biochrome
  • Chrom
  • Chromium, elemental
  • Cromo
  • Dinakrome
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chromium-life Dietary SupplementTablet100 mcgOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Q.T. #1 SupplementTablet6 mcgOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcceleratorTablet150 mcgOralHealth 4 All Products Limited.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Bio-chromeCapsule200 mcgOralSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe2000-06-282002-06-18Canada
Chelated Chromium 200 McgTablet200 mcgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1998-06-262008-07-17Canada
Chelated Chromium CapsulesCapsule100 mcgOralAlbion1996-09-062002-07-12Canada
Chelated Chromium Gtf 500mcg TabTablet500 mcgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1987-12-312009-09-28Canada
Chrome Zme (ii)Capsule100 mcgOralInfinity2 Distribution Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
ChromiumCapsule200 mcgOralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.2000-01-102002-07-29Canada
Chromium 200 Mcg - TabletTablet200 mcgOralAlive Vitamins1997-03-262002-07-12Canada
Chromium 200mcgTablet200 mcgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182009-08-05Canada
Chromium 200mcgTablet200 mcgOralNutricorp International2000-02-012009-08-05Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsChromium (20 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsChromium (10 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A.M. FormulaChromium (133.3 mcg) + Vanadium (25 mcg)TabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1998-06-051999-08-06Canada
AcvChromium (150 mcg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg)TabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.2001-10-012004-06-30Canada
Advanced 2000 CapsulesChromium (50 mcg) + Choline (15 mg) + Inositol (15 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Pantothenic acid (15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (4 mg)CapsuleOralBody Gold, A Division Of Pep Products, Inc.2000-01-012002-08-22Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaChromium (33.33 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
AmdChromium (25 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Manganese (15 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralSeroyal International Inc.1997-06-272009-07-06Canada
BiosculptChromium (40 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (0.3 mg) + Inositol (0.3 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (60 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Ubidecarenone (1.5 mg)SolutionOralMaxion Nutrition Corp.2002-06-102004-07-20Canada
Body RoxChromium (50.0 mcg) + Beta carotene (3000.0 unit) + Biotin (100.0 mcg) + Calcium (75.0 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (167.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (133.0 unit) + Choline bitartrate (15.0 mg) + Copper (0.33 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20.0 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.267 mg) + Inositol (10.0 mg) + Magnesium (37.5 mg) + Manganese (1.0 mg) + Molybdenum (15.0 mcg) + Niacin (1.66 mg) + Nicotinamide (3.3 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10.0 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.05 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Riboflavin (3.0 mg) + Selenium (40.0 mcg) + Silicon (1.0 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Vanadium (10.0 mcg) + Zinc (4.0 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (66.7 unit)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2003-09-022008-06-27Canada
C. Vit-min FormulaChromium (50 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (175 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline (30 mg) + Copper (5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (10 mg) + Folic Acid (0.600 mg) + Inositol (30 mg) + Magnesium (80 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (50 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg) + Potassium (40 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Racemethionine (3 mg) + Riboflavin (50 mg) + Sodium selenite (200 mcg) + Silicon (0.01 mg) + Thiamine (50 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Zinc (40 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (100 unit)TabletOralNutramed Laboratories Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LipoviteChromium (1 mg/1mL) + Choline (1 mg/1mL) + Dexpanthenol (1 mg/1mL) + Inositol (1 mg/1mL) + L-Carnitine (1 mg/1mL) + L-Citrulline (1 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine (1 mg/1mL) + Methionine sulfoximine (1 mg/1mL) + Methylcobalamin (1 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (1 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine (1 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin (1 mg/1mL) + Thiamine chloride (1 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscularPerdido Key Health And Wellness Inc2015-11-23Not applicableUs
Strovite Forte CapletChromium (50 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + Biotin (0.15 mg/1) + Copper (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (10 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Molybdenum (20 ug/1) + Niacin (100 mg/1) + Pantothenic acid (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Selenium (50 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A (4000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (60 [iU]/1) + Zinc (15 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.1996-10-01Not applicableUs
Strovite One CapletsChromium (50 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (300 mg/1) + Biotin (100 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1.5 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Lipoic Acid (15 mg/1) + Lutein (5 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese (1.5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (25 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (7.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (5 mg/1) + Selenium (100 ug/1) + Thiamine chloride (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A (3000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (100 [iU]/1)TabletOralExeltis Usa, Inc.2001-05-04Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
0R0008Q3JB
CAS number
7440-47-3
Weight
Average: 51.9961
Monoisotopic: 51.940511904
Chemical Formula
Cr
InChI Key
VYZAMTAEIAYCRO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Cr
IUPAC Name
chromium
SMILES
[Cr]

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [Label].

Pharmacodynamics

Trivalent chromium is part of glucose tolerance factor, an essential activator of insulin-mediated reactions. Chromium helps to maintain normal glucose metabolism and peripheral nerve function. Chromium increases insulin binding to cells, increases insulin receptor density and activates insulin receptor kinase leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity [2]. In chromium deficiency, intravenous administration of chromium resulted in normalization of the glucose tolerance curve from the diabetic-like curve typical of chromium deficiency [Label].

Mechanism of action

Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in the metabolism of glucose, insulin and blood lipids. Its role in potentiating insulin signalling cascades has been implicated in several studies. Chromium upregulates insulin-stimulated insulin signal transduction via affecting effector molecules downstream of the insulin receptor (IR). IR-mediated signalling pathway involves phoshorylation of multiple intracellular domains and protein kinases, and downstream effector molecules [3]. Upon activation by ligands, intracellular β-subunit of IR autophosphorylates and activates tyrosine kinase domain of the IR, followed by activation and phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and downstream signalling effectors including phosphatidylinositol 2-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates further downstream reaction cascades to activate protein kinase B (Akt) to ultimately promote translocation of glucose transporter-4 (Glut4)-vesicles from the cytoplasm to the cell surface and regulate glucose uptake [3]. Chromium enhances the kinase activity of insulin receptor β and increases the activity of downstream effectors, pI3-kinase and Akt.

Under insulin-resistant conditions, chromium also promotes GLUT-4 transporter translocation that is independent of activity of IR, IRS-1, PI3-kinase, or Akt; chromium mediates cholesterol efflux from the membranes via increasing fluidity of the membrane by decreasing the membrane cholesterol and upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein [3]. As a result, intracellular GLUT-4 transporters are stimulated to translocate from intracellular to the plasma membrane, leading to enhanced glucose uptake in muscle cells [8]. Chromium attenuates the activity of PTP-1B in vitro, which is a negative regulator of insulin signaling. It also alleviates ER stress that is observed to be elevated the suppression of insulin signaling. ER stress is thought to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which subsequently induces serine phosphorylation of IRS and aberration of insulin signalling [3]. Transient upregulation of AMPK by chromium also leads to increased glucose uptake [3].

TargetActionsOrganism
UCytochrome b5
substrate
Human
Absorption

Chromium compounds are both absorbed by the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Oral absorption of chromium compounds in humans can range between 0.5% and 10%, with the hexavalent (VI) chromium more easily absorbed than the trivalent (III) form [5]. Absorption of chromium from the intestinal tract is low, ranging from less than 0.4% to 2.5% of the amount consumed [7]. Vitamin C and the vitamin B niacin is reported to enhance chromium absorption [7].

Most hexavalent Cr (VI) undergoes partial intragastric reduction to Cr (III) upon absorption, which is an action mainly mediated by sulfhydryl groups of amino acids [5]. Cr (VI) readily penetrates cell membranes and chromium can be found in both erythrocytes and plasma after gastrointestinal absorption of Cr (IV). In comparison, the presence of chromium is limited to the plasma as Cr (III) displays poor cell membrane penetration [5]. Once transported through the cell membrane, Cr (VI) is rapidly reduced to Cr (III), which subsequently binds to macromolecules or conjugate with proteins. Cr (III) may be bound to transferrin or other plasma proteins, or as complexes, such as glucose tolerance factor (GTF).

Volume of distribution

Absorbed chromium is distributed to all tissues of the body and its distribution in the body depends on the species, age, and chemical form [8]. Circulating Cr (III) following oral or parenteral administration of different compounds can be taken up by tissues and accumulates in the liver, kidney, spleen, soft tissue, and bone [7].

Protein binding

In the blood, 95% of chromium (III) is bound to large molecular mass proteins, such as transferrin, while a small proportion associates with low molecular mass oligopeptides [6]. Serum chromium is bound to transferrin in the beta globulin fraction [Label].

Metabolism

The metabolism of Cr (VI) involves reduction by small molecules and enzyme systems to generate Cr (III) and reactive intermediates. During this process, free radicals can be generated, which is thought to induce damage of cellular components and cause toxicity of chromium [6]. The metabolites bind to cellular constituents [5].

Route of elimination

Absorbed chromium is excreted mainly in the urine, accounting for 80% of total excretion of chromium; small amounts are lost in hair, perspiration and bile [5]. Chromium is excreted primarily in the urine by glomerular filtration or bound to a low molecular-weight organic transporter [8].

Half life

The elimination half-life of hexavalent chromium is 15 to 41 hours [5].

Clearance

Excretion of chromium is via the kidneys ranges from 3 to 50 μg/day [Label]. The 24-hour urinary excretion rates for normal human subjects are reported to be 0.22 μg/day [8].

Toxicity

Oral LD50 for Cr (VI) is 135 - 175 mg/kg in mouse and 46 - 113 mg/kg in rat [5]. Oral LD50 for Cr (III) in rat is >2000 mg/kg [5]. LD50 of chromium (III) oxide in rats is reported to be > 5g/kg [6]. Other LD50 values reported for rats include: 3.5 g/kg (CI 3.19-3.79 g/kg) for chromium sulphate; 11.3 g/kg for chromium (III) acetate; 3.3 g/kg for chromium nitrate; and 1.5 g/kg for chromium nitrate nonahydrate [6].

Acute overdose of chromium is rare and seriously detrimental effects of hexavalent chromium are primarily the result of chronic low-level exposure [5]. In case of overdose with minimal toxicity following acute ingestion, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive [5]. There is no known antidote for chromium toxicity.

Hexavalent chromium is a Class A carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure and Class D by the oral route [5]. The oral lethal dose in humans has been estimated to be 1-3 g of Cr (VI); oral toxicity most likely involves gastrointestinal bleeding rather than systemic toxicity [5]. Chronic exposure may cause damage to the following organs: kidneys, lungs, liver, upper respiratory tract [MSDS]. Soluble chromium VI compounds are human carcinogens. Hexavalent chromium compounds were mutagenic in bacteria assays and caused chromosome aberrations in mammalian cells. There have been associations of increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from chromate production workers [4]. In human cells in vitro, Cr (VI) caused chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and oxidative DNA damage [5].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AlprazolamAlprazolam may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmitriptylineChromium may decrease the excretion rate of Amitriptyline which could result in a higher serum level.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AmoxicillinAmoxicillin may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AmphetamineAmphetamine may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AmpicillinAmpicillin may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
AuranofinAuranofin may decrease the excretion rate of Chromium which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Wallach S: Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4(1):107-20. [PubMed:3886757]
  2. Anderson RA: Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2000 Feb;26(1):22-7. [PubMed:10705100]
  3. Hua Y, Clark S, Ren J, Sreejayan N: Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr;23(4):313-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.11.001. [PubMed:22423897]
  4. CHROMIUM, ELEMENTAL - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet - NIH [Link]
  5. CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet - NIH [Link]
  6. Chromium Toxicological Overview - Health Protection Agency - Gov.uk [Link]
  7. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Chromium [Link]
  8. Dailymed Label: DIVISTA - chromium picolinate capsule [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C06268
PubChem Compound
23976
PubChem Substance
347827914
ChemSpider
22412
ChEBI
28073
Wikipedia
Chromium
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
FDA label
Download (73 KB)
MSDS
Download (49.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Neovascular Maculopathy1
2CompletedPreventionHerpes simplex of the genitals / Ulcers1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3RecruitingPreventionCMV Disease1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Macular Edema (ME) / Retinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)2
4TerminatedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningGlaucoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral150 mcg
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
TabletOral
CapsuleOral100 mcg
TabletOral200 mcg
TabletOral0.2 mg
TabletOral500 mcg
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mcg
CapsuleOral200 mcg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral10 mcg
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
InjectionIntramuscular
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidOral
TabletOral6 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral
PowderOral150 mcg
TabletOral100 mcg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1900MSDS
boiling point (°C)2642MSDS
water solubilityInsolubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
chromium group element atom (CHEBI:28073)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Cytochrome b5 is a membrane bound hemoprotein which function as an electron carrier for several membrane bound oxygenases.
Gene Name
CYB5A
Uniprot ID
P00167
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome b5
Molecular Weight
15329.985 Da
References
  1. Jannetto PJ, Antholine WE, Myers CR: Cytochrome b(5) plays a key role in human microsomal chromium(VI) reduction. Toxicology. 2001 Feb 28;159(3):119-33. [PubMed:11223168]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Moshtaghie AA, Ani M, Bazrafshan MR: Comparative binding study of aluminum and chromium to human transferrin. Effect of iron. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jan-Mar;32:39-46. [PubMed:1375080]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on September 21, 2018 20:42