Also known as: Edema / Edema NOS / Oedema NOS / Edema (NOS) / Fluid retention NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00819AcetazolamideOne of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
DB00887BumetanideBumetanide is a sulfamyl diuretic.
DB00880ChlorothiazideA thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
DB00903Etacrynic acidA compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
DB00695FurosemideFurosemide is a loop diuretic that acts on the kidneys to ultimately increase water loss from the body. An anthranilic acid derivative,[L7958] furosemide is most commonly used for edema secondary to various clinical conditions, such as congestive heart failure exacerbation, liver failure, or renal failure, and high blood pressure.[L7961] It mainly works by inhibiting electrolyte reabsorption from the kidneys and enhancing the excretion of water from the body. Furosemide has a fast onset and short duration of diuretic action and has been used safely and effectively in both pediatric and adult patient populations.[A182495] Being a potent diuretic, the use of furosemide is thought to be particularly beneficial when an agent with greater diuretic potential is desired. Intramuscular and intravenous formulations of furosemide may be used in individuals with impaired gastrointestinal absorption or when oral administration of the drug is clinically unsuitable. It is proposed that parenteral use should be replaced with oral furosemide, in the form of tablets or oral solution, as soon as practical.[L7958]
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide is the most commonly prescribed thiazide diuretic.[A185138] It is indicated to treat edema and hypertension.[A185138,L8447,L8450] Hydrochlorothiazide use is common but declining in favour of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.[A185138] Many combination products are available containing hydrochlorothiazide and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors[L8390,L8423] or angiotensin II receptor blockers.[L7426,L7459] Hydrochlorothiazide was granted FDA approval on 12 February 1959.[L8444]
DB00232MethyclothiazideA thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p825)
DB00524MetolazoneA quinazoline-sulfonamide that is considered a thiazide-like diuretic which is long-acting so useful in chronic renal failure. It also tends to lower blood pressure and increase potassium loss.
DB00421SpironolactoneSpironolactone is a potassium sparing diuretic like [eplerenone] that competitively inhibits mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal convoluted tubule to promote sodium and water excretion and potassium retention.[A11837]. Spironolactone was originally developed purely for this ability before other pharmacodynamic properties of the drug were discovered.[A11837,A178246] It is indicated to treat a number of conditions including heart failure, deem, hyperaldosteronism, adrenal hyperplasia, hypertension, and nephrotic syndrome.[Label] Off label uses of spironolactone involving its antiandrogenic activity include hirsutism, female pattern hair loss, and adult acne vulgaris.[A178135] Spironolactone is also frequently used in medical gender transition.[A178138] Spironolactone was developed in 1957, marketed in 1959, and approved by the FDA on January 21, 1960.[A178243,L6187]
DB00214TorasemideTorasemide is a high-ceiling loop diuretic.[A174463] Structurally, it is a pyridine-sulfnyl urea used as an antihypertensive agent.[A319] On the FDA records, torasemide was developed and first introduced by the company Teva Pharmaceuticals and FDA approved in 2002.[L5248] However, torasemide was first approved for clinical use by the FDA on 1993.[L5257]
DB00384TriamtereneTriamterene (2,4,7-triamino-6-phenylpteridine) is a potassium-sparing diuretic that is used in the management of hypertension. It works by promoting the excretion of sodium ions and water while decreasing the potassium excretion in the distal part of the nephron in the kidneys by working on the lumenal side.[A177985] Since it acts on the distal nephron where only a small fraction of sodium ion reabsorption occurs, triamterene is reported to have limited diuretic efficacy.[T28] Due to its effects on increased serum potassium levels, triamterene is associated with a risk of producing hyperkalemia. Triamterene is a weak antagonist of folic acid, and a photosensitizing drug.[L6163] Triamterene was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. in 1964.[L6163] Currently, triamterene is used in the treatment of edema associated with various conditions as monotherapy and is approved for use with other diuretics to enhance diuretic and potassium-sparing effects.[label] It is also found in a combination product with hydrochlorothiazide that is used for the management of hypertension or treatment of edema in patients who develop hypokalemia on hydrochlorothiazide alone.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
DB00819AcetazolamideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00819AcetazolamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00887BumetanideCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 12 member 2target
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 12 member 4target
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 12 member 5target
DB00887BumetanideSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00887BumetanideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00887BumetanideProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00880ChlorothiazideSolute carrier family 12 member 3target
DB00880ChlorothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00880ChlorothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00880ChlorothiazideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00903Etacrynic acidSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidGlutathione S-transferase A2enzyme
DB00903Etacrynic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00903Etacrynic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00903Etacrynic acidLymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidGlutathione S-transferase Ptarget
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00695FurosemideSerum albumincarrier
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00695FurosemideCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00695Furosemide6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingenzyme
DB00695FurosemideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00695FurosemideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00695FurosemideThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 12 member 3target
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSerum albumincarrier
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00232MethyclothiazideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00524MetolazoneSolute carrier family 12 member 3target
DB00421SpironolactoneMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00421SpironolactoneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00421SpironolactoneAndrogen receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialtarget
DB00421SpironolactoneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyasetarget
DB00421Spironolactone3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenasetarget
DB00421SpironolactoneSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00421SpironolactoneVoltage-dependent calcium channeltarget
DB00421SpironolactoneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00421SpironolactoneBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00421SpironolactoneSerum albumincarrier
DB00421Spironolactonealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00214TorasemideCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00214TorasemideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier family 12 member 2target
DB00214TorasemideSerum albumincarrier
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit gammatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit alphatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit betatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit deltatarget
DB00384TriamtereneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB09106Hydroxyethyl Starch2Completed1
DB00802AlfentanilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00479AmikacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00513Aminocaproic acidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00559BosentanNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01413CefepimeNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00369CidofovirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00537CiprofloxacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00363ClozapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00318CodeineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB14649Dexamethasone acetateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00586DiclofenacNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00668EpinephrineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01628EtoricoxibNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00828FosfomycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00598LabetalolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB06707LevonordefrinNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB08815LurasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00961MepivacaineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01618MolindoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00607NafcillinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01115NifedipineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00497OxycodoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00312PentobarbitalNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00319PiperacillinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00728RocuroniumNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00658SevelamerNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00421SpironolactoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01606TazobactamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00684TobramycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00214TorasemideNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00302Tranexamic acidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00512VancomycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01339VecuroniumNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00246ZiprasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00425ZolpidemNot AvailableRecruiting1