Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)

Also known as: Postoperative Nausea and Vomit / Postoperative Nausea / Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / Vomiting Postoperative / Nausea, Postoperative / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting / Postoperative Vomiting / Procedural nausea / Vomiting, Postoperative / Post-op vomiting / Post procedural vomiting / Nausea postoperative / Procedural vomiting

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00985DimenhydrinateDimenhydrinate, also known as Dramamine or Gravol, is an over-the-counter drug used to prevent nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness. Dimenhydrinate is a combination drug composed of [DB01075] and [DB14132] in a salt form, with 53%-55.5% of diphenhydramine, and not less than 44%-47% of 8-chlorotheophylline, calculated on the dried basis. The antiemetic properties of dimenhydrinate are primarily thought to be produced by diphenhydramine's antagonism of H1 histamine receptors in the vestibular system [A1540] while the excitatory effects are thought to be produced by 8-chlorotheophylline's adenosine receptor blockade [A33889]. The addition of 8-chlorotheophylline was initially intended to counteract the sedative effects of diphenhydramine. When used in large doses, dimenhydrinate has been shown to cause a "high" characterized by hallucinations, excitement, incoordination, and disorientation [A1539].
DB00757DolasetronDolasetron is an antinauseant and antiemetic agent indicated for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with moderately-emetogenic cancer chemotherapy and for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Dolasetron is a highly specific and selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. This drug is not shown to have activity at other known serotonin receptors, and has low affinity for dopamine receptors.
DB01364EphedrineAn alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
DB00502HaloperidolA phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone, traditional antipsychotic drug that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used for the management of schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, ballism, and Tourette syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea associated with Huntington's disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable hiccups [L1994], [L1996]. The efficacy of haloperidol was first established in controlled trials in the 1960s [L2014]. Interestingly, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies have demonstrated that the metabolism of haloperidol may be modulated by genetically determined polymorphic _CYP2D6_ activity. However, these findings contradict the findings from studies in vitro with human liver microsomes and from drug interaction studies in vivo. Inter-ethnic and pharmacogenetic differences in haloperidol metabolism may possibly explain these observations [A32346].
DB01233MetoclopramideA dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
DB00904OndansetronA competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties. [PubChem]
DB00377PalonosetronPalonosetron (INN, trade name Aloxi) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). It is the most effective of the 5-HT3 antagonists in controlling delayed CINV nausea and vomiting that appear more than 24 hours after the first dose of a course of chemotherapy and is the only drug of its class approved for this use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. As of 2008, it is the most recent 5-HT3 antagonist to enter clinical use.
DB00747ScopolamineAn alkaloid from Solanaceae, especially Datura metel L. and Scopola carniolica. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like atropine, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in urinary incontinence, in motion sickness, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00985DimenhydrinateHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00757Dolasetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00757DolasetronCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00757DolasetronCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00757DolasetronCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01364EphedrineAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB01364EphedrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01364EphedrineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01364EphedrineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB01364EphedrineCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00502HaloperidolD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00502HaloperidolD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00502Haloperidol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00502HaloperidolD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00502HaloperidolCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolMelanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1target
DB00502HaloperidolSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB01233MetoclopramideMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01233MetoclopramideD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01233MetoclopramideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01233Metoclopramide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4target
DB01233MetoclopramideCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB01233MetoclopramideCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialenzyme
DB01233MetoclopramideSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DB01233Metoclopramide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01233MetoclopramideAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00904Ondansetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00904Ondansetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4target
DB00904Ondansetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00904Ondansetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00904OndansetronMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00904OndansetronCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00377Palonosetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00377PalonosetronCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00377PalonosetronCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00377PalonosetronCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00747ScopolamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00747ScopolamineSucrase-isomaltase, intestinaltarget
DB00747ScopolamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00747ScopolamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00747ScopolamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00747ScopolamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00747ScopolamineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00747ScopolamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00747ScopolamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00673Aprepitant1Completed2
DB06634Casopitant1Completed1
DB00757Dolasetron1Completed1
DB06717Fosaprepitant1Completed1
DB00889Granisetron1Completed1
DB00683Midazolam1Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron1Completed2
DB00412Rosiglitazone1Completed1
DB11949Vestipitant1Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron1 / 2Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen2Completed1
DB01370Aluminium2Completed1
DB00673Aprepitant2Unknown Status1
DB09020Bisacodyl2Completed1
DB06634Casopitant2Completed1
DB01189Desflurane2Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone2Completed2
DB01234Dexamethasone2Terminated1
DB01234Dexamethasone2Unknown Status2
DB00985Dimenhydrinate2Completed1
DB11089Docusate2Completed1
DB00889Granisetron2Completed1
DB00486Nabilone2Completed1
DB00184Nicotine2Terminated1
DB00334Olanzapine2Recruiting1
DB00904Ondansetron2Completed5
DB00377Palonosetron2Completed1
DB00860Prednisolone2Completed1
DB00818Propofol2Completed1
DB09290Ramosetron2Completed1
DB09290Ramosetron2Unknown Status1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Completed2
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Terminated1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Unknown Status1
DB11949Vestipitant2Completed2
DB00316Acetaminophen2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00673Aprepitant2 / 3Completed1
DB09061Cannabidiol2 / 3Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone2 / 3Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00470Dronabinol2 / 3Recruiting1
DB06717Fosaprepitant2 / 3Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2 / 3Completed1
DB00683Midazolam2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00334Olanzapine2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00673Aprepitant3Completed2
DB00443Betamethasone3Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine3Withdrawn1
DB06634Casopitant3Completed2
DB01234Dexamethasone3Completed3
DB01234Dexamethasone3Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Withdrawn1
DB00450Droperidol3Completed1
DB01009Ketoprofen3Recruiting1
DB01400Neostigmine3Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron3Completed5
DB00497Oxycodone3Completed1
DB00377Palonosetron3Completed2
DB09290Ramosetron3Completed1
DB00296Ropivacaine3Recruiting1
DB00296Ropivacaine3Withdrawn1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Recruiting1
DB06206Sugammadex3Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed2
DB00316Acetaminophen4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Terminated1
DB00673Aprepitant4Completed6
DB00673Aprepitant4Recruiting2
DB00673Aprepitant4Terminated1
DB13295Atracurium4Completed1
DB00572Atropine4Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Recruiting1
DB01189Desflurane4Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Completed11
DB01234Dexamethasone4Not Yet Recruiting5
DB01234Dexamethasone4Recruiting3
DB01234Dexamethasone4Terminated1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Recruiting1
DB00985Dimenhydrinate4Completed1
DB00450Droperidol4Completed1
DB00668Epinephrine4Completed1
DB00199Erythromycin4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl4Recruiting1
DB06717Fosaprepitant4Completed2
DB06717Fosaprepitant4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06717Fosaprepitant4Recruiting2
DB06717Fosaprepitant4Terminated1
DB00996Gabapentin4Completed1
DB00889Granisetron4Completed1
DB00889Granisetron4Recruiting1
DB00956Hydrocodone4Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone4Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine4Completed1
DB01221Ketamine4Recruiting1
DB01002Levobupivacaine4Completed1
DB00281Lidocaine4Completed2
DB00959Methylprednisolone4Completed2
DB01233Metoclopramide4Completed1
DB01233Metoclopramide4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01233Metoclopramide4Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine4Completed2
DB01400Neostigmine4Terminated1
DB00904Ondansetron4Completed11
DB00904Ondansetron4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00904Ondansetron4Recruiting4
DB00497Oxycodone4Recruiting1
DB00377Palonosetron4Completed4
DB12492Piritramide4Completed1
DB00433Prochlorperazine4Recruiting1
DB01069Promethazine4Completed1
DB00818Propofol4Completed1
DB00818Propofol4Recruiting1
DB09290Ramosetron4Completed1
DB09290Ramosetron4Recruiting2
DB09290Ramosetron4Unknown Status1
DB00296Ropivacaine4Completed2
DB00747Scopolamine4Recruiting1
DB01236Sevoflurane4Completed2
DB01236Sevoflurane4Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Completed6
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Terminated1
DB00708Sufentanil4Completed1
DB06206Sugammadex4Recruiting1
DB06206Sugammadex4Terminated1
DB00193Tramadol4Completed1
DB09315Xenon-1334Completed1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB00802AlfentanilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00673AprepitantNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00673AprepitantNot AvailableWithdrawn3
DB00297BupivacaineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00201CaffeineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11121ChloroxylenolNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01189DesfluraneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableCompleted12
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB00633DexmedetomidineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified formNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00757DolasetronNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00470DronabinolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00450DroperidolNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00668EpinephrineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00187EsmololNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00927FamotidineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableCompleted2
DB06717FosaprepitantNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00889GranisetronNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01018GuanfacineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00956HydrocodoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00327HydromorphoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00753IsofluraneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01002LevobupivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB00186LorazepamNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00737MeclizineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00454MeperidineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB04817MetamizoleNot AvailableCompleted1
DB04817MetamizoleNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00333MethadoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01233MetoclopramideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00844NalbuphineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01183NaloxoneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00184NicotineNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableCompleted7
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableWithdrawn2
DB00497OxycodoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01192OxymorphoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00377PalonosetronNot AvailableCompleted4
DB00981PhysostigmineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01069PromethazineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01069PromethazineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09288PropacetamolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00807ProparacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09290RamosetronNot AvailableCompleted5
DB09290RamosetronNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00747ScopolamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01236SevofluraneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted5
DB00708SufentanilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00193TramadolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11699TropisetronNot AvailableCompleted2