Pain, Acute

Also known as: Pain Acute / Acute Pain / Pain NOS / Pain finding / Acute pain NOS / Pain

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00395CarisoprodolA centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)
DB00482Celecoxib_Celecoxib_ is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and is also used to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It is marketed by Pfizer under the brand name _Celebrex_. Celecoxib is available by prescription in capsule form [A34124]. By inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause mucosal damage, ulceration and ulcer complication throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Celecoxib, however, poses less of an ulceration risk, owing to its decreased effect on gastric mucosal prostaglandin synthesis, when compared to placebo [A34152]. Interestingly, selective COX-2 inhibitors (especially _celecoxib_), have been evaluated as potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic drugs in clinical trials for a variety of malignancies [A34124].
DB00586DiclofenacA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
DB00749EtodolacEtodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Its therapeutic effects are due to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. It is indicated for relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
DB00956HydrocodoneNarcotic analgesic related to codeine, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer.[A39194]
DB00328IndometacinIndometacin is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Its pharmacological effect is thought to be mediated through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for catalyzes the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway.
DB00465KetorolacA pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to indomethacin. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
DB00296RopivacaineRopivacaine is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. The name ropivacaine refers to both the racemate and the marketed S-enantiomer. Ropivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Naropin.
DB00708SufentanilSufentanil is an opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent. It is administered by the intravenous, epidural and sublingual routes. Also known as _Dsuvia_, the sublingual form is used for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments [L4717]. Consideration may be made in the future for the use of the sublingual form in the US military in cases where analgesia is required immediately [L4718]. The sublingual form, manufactured by AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (AcelRx), was approved on November 2, 2018 [L4717]. This route of administration is intended to be a simple, effective, non-invasive analgesic option to enable healthcare professionals to rapidly manage acute pain without difficult intravenous or epidural administration [L4717], [A39633].
DB00193TramadolA narcotic analgesic proposed for moderate to severe pain. It may be habituating. Tramadol is also prepared as a variable release capsules, marketed under the brand name ConZip. For example, a 150 mg capsule will contain 37.5 mg of the immediate release form and 112.5 mg of the extended release form.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00395CarisoprodolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00395CarisoprodolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00395CarisoprodolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00395CarisoprodolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00482CelecoxibProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00482Celecoxib3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1target
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00482CelecoxibCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00482CelecoxibATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5target
DB00482CelecoxibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2target
DB00482CelecoxibMultidrug resistance protein 1target
DB00482CelecoxibBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00586DiclofenacTransthyretincarrier
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSerum albumincarrier
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacArachidonate 5-lipoxygenasetarget
DB00586DiclofenacSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00586DiclofenacAcid-sensing ion channel 1target
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
DB00586DiclofenacPhospholipase A2, membrane associatedtarget
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00749EtodolacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00749EtodolacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00749EtodolacCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00749EtodolacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00749EtodolacRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphatarget
DB00749EtodolacSerum albumincarrier
DB00749EtodolacSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00749EtodolacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00749EtodolacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00749EtodolacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00956HydrocodoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00328IndometacinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00328IndometacinPhospholipase A2, membrane associatedtarget
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin reductase 2target
DB00328IndometacinLactoylglutathione lyasetarget
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin D2 receptor 2target
DB00328IndometacinPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00328IndometacinSerum albumincarrier
DB00328IndometacinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 6transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00328IndometacinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00328IndometacinSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00328IndometacinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00328IndometacinLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00328IndometacinPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00328IndometacinAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3target
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00328IndometacinBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00465KetorolacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00465KetorolacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00296RopivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00708SufentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00193TramadolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00193Tramadol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00193TramadolKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00193TramadolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00193TramadolGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00193TramadolAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB00193TramadolMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00193TramadolMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00193TramadolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00996Gabapentin0Completed1
DB00333Methadone0Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine0Recruiting1
DB00296Ropivacaine0Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen1Withdrawn2
DB00297Bupivacaine1Completed1
DB09214Dexketoprofen1Completed1
DB08818Hyaluronic acid1Completed1
DB00956Hydrocodone1Withdrawn2
DB00327Hydromorphone1Completed1
DB00295Morphine1Completed1
DB00788Naproxen1Completed1
DB00497Oxycodone1Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin1Completed1
DB00575Clonidine1 / 2Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine1 / 2Completed1
DB00295Morphine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine1 / 2Completed1
DB00295Morphine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00388Phenylephrine1 / 2Completed1
DB00899Remifentanil1 / 2Completed1
DB01638Sorbitol1 / 2Completed1
DB05050ADL58592Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen2Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen2Recruiting1
DB00297Bupivacaine2Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine2Recruiting1
DB06774Capsaicin2Withdrawn1
DB11131Capsicum oleoresin2Withdrawn1
DB00190Carbidopa2Withdrawn1
DB00482Celecoxib2Completed2
DB00575Clonidine2Completed1
DB11938Difelikefalin2Completed2
DB00813Fentanyl2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone2Completed1
DB00327Hydromorphone2Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen2Completed1
DB01235Levodopa2Withdrawn1
DB00825Levomenthol2Withdrawn1
DB00186Lorazepam2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09543Methyl salicylate2Withdrawn1
DB01017Minocycline2Completed1
DB00295Morphine2Completed3
DB00295Morphine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01183Naloxone2Recruiting1
DB00788Naproxen2Withdrawn1
DB00497Oxycodone2Completed1
DB00899Remifentanil2Recruiting1
DB06204Tapentadol2Completed1
DB06264Tolperisone2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00193Tramadol2Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine2 / 3Completed1
DB00575Clonidine2 / 3Completed1
DB00586Diclofenac2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone2 / 3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine2 / 3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00465Ketorolac2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine2 / 3Completed1
DB09337Medical air2 / 3Terminated1
DB00683Midazolam2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine2 / 3Completed1
DB09152Nitrogen2 / 3Terminated1
DB09140Oxygen2 / 3Terminated1
DB03754Tromethamine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Completed3
DB00316Acetaminophen3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06774Capsaicin3Completed1
DB00482Celecoxib3Completed2
DB00924Cyclobenzaprine3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09214Dexketoprofen3Completed2
DB00586Diclofenac3Completed4
DB00749Etodolac3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl3Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone3Completed2
DB00327Hydromorphone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone3Terminated1
DB01050Ibuprofen3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine3Terminated1
DB00281Lidocaine3Recruiting2
DB01028Methoxyflurane3Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine3Completed4
DB00295Morphine3Recruiting1
DB01192Oxymorphone3Completed1
DB01192Oxymorphone3Recruiting1
DB02772Sucrose3Recruiting1
DB00708Sufentanil3Completed1
DB06204Tapentadol3Completed1
DB06204Tapentadol3Recruiting1
DB00193Tramadol3Completed2
DB00316Acetaminophen4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed5
DB00316Acetaminophen4Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Withdrawn1
DB06274Alvimopan4Withdrawn1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Completed4
DB00297Bupivacaine4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Recruiting5
DB00921Buprenorphine4Completed1
DB00921Buprenorphine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form4Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00668Epinephrine4Completed1
DB01628Etoricoxib4Unknown Status1
DB12728Fenpropidin4Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl4Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl4Terminated1
DB00588Fluticasone propionate4Terminated1
DB00996Gabapentin4Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB08872Gabapentin enacarbil4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone4Completed2
DB00327Hydromorphone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00327Hydromorphone4Withdrawn1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine4Completed4
DB01221Ketamine4Recruiting2
DB01221Ketamine4Terminated1
DB01221Ketamine4Withdrawn1
DB00465Ketorolac4Completed1
DB00465Ketorolac4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine4Completed1
DB00281Lidocaine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine4Recruiting2
DB09337Medical air4Completed1
DB01028Methoxyflurane4Completed2
DB00295Morphine4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine4Completed4
DB00295Morphine4Recruiting2
DB00295Morphine4Withdrawn1
DB01183Naloxone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09152Nitrogen4Completed1
DB00497Oxycodone4Completed1
DB00497Oxycodone4Recruiting2
DB09140Oxygen4Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin4Completed1
DB00818Propofol4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00899Remifentanil4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00533Rofecoxib4Terminated1
DB00296Ropivacaine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00296Ropivacaine4Recruiting1
DB01236Sevoflurane4Active Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Recruiting4
DB00708Sufentanil4Recruiting1
DB06204Tapentadol4Recruiting1
DB00193Tramadol4Completed1
DB00580Valdecoxib4Terminated1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00297BupivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01164Calcium ChlorideNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00633DexmedetomidineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00476DuloxetineNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00476DuloxetineNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableUnknown Status2
DB04398Lactic AcidNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting2
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01229PaclitaxelNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00761Potassium chlorideNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1