Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Also known as: Acute, refractory Myeloid Leukemia

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00631ClofarabineClofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is marketed in the U.S. and Canada as Clolar. In Europe and Australia/New Zealand the product is marketed under the name Evoltra. Clofarabine is used in paediatrics to treat a type of leukaemia called relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), only after at least two other types of treatment have failed. It is not known if the drug extends life expectancy. Some investigations of effectiveness in cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) have been carried out.
DB13874EnasidenibEnasidenib is an orally available treatment for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with specific mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) gene, which is a recurrent mutation detected in 12-20% of adult patients with AML [A20344, A20345]. Patients eligible for this treatment are selected by testing the presence of IDH2 mutations in the blood or bone marrow. This small molecule acts as an allosteric inhibitor of mutant IDH2 enzyme to prevent cell growth, and it also has shown to block several other enzymes that play a role in abnormal cell differentiation. First developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals and licensed to Celgene, enasidenib was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 1, 2017.
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinGemtuzumab ozogamicin is a recombinant humanized IgG4 kappa antibody which is conjugated with calicheamicin derivative, a cytotoxic antitumor antibiotic isolated from fermentation of Micromonospora echinospora ssp. calichensis. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin has approximately 50% of the antibody loaded with 4-6 moles calicheamicin per mole of antibody [FDA Label]. The antibody is specifically directed against the CD33 antigen present on leukemic myeloblasts in most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By binding to the CD33 antigen on tumors, the cytotoxic agent blocks the growth of cancerous cells and causes cell death. Marketing approval of gemtuzumab ozogamicin was granted on May 17, 2000 by FDA as a treatment for patients with CD33-positive AML in first relapse who are 60 years of age or older and who are not considered candidates for cytotoxic chemotherapy [A98]. However, it was voluntarily withdrawn from the market in 2010 due to safety concerns, increased patient deaths and insufficient evidence of clinical benefit during confirmatory trials [L941]. On September 1 2017, gemtuzumab ozogamicin was again approved for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia but with a lower dosing regimen and a different schedule in combination with chemotherapy or on its own [L941]. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients aged 2 years and older with CD33-positive AML who have experienced a relapse or who have not responded to initial treatment (refractory) [L941].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00631ClofarabineDNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunittarget
DB00631ClofarabineRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunittarget
DB00631ClofarabineDeoxycytidine kinaseenzyme
DB00631ClofarabineATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP], mitochondrialtarget
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB13874EnasidenibMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB13874EnasidenibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB13874EnasidenibSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB13874EnasidenibSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB13874EnasidenibSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB13874EnasidenibSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB13874EnasidenibSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinMyeloid cell surface antigen CD33target
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Btarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinComplement C1s subcomponenttarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicinLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00987Cytarabine0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00694Daunorubicin0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00056Gemtuzumab ozogamicin0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00928Azacitidine1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00928Azacitidine1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00987Cytarabine1Active Not Recruiting2
DB00773Etoposide1Active Not Recruiting2
DB06186Ipilimumab1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09570Ixazomib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01204Mitoxantrone1Active Not Recruiting2
DB09079Nintedanib1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09035Nivolumab1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11945Avelumab1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00928Azacitidine1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00928Azacitidine1 / 2Recruiting2
DB00242Cladribine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00987Cytarabine1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00987Cytarabine1 / 2Recruiting3
DB01262Decitabine1 / 2Recruiting2
DB00099Filgrastim1 / 2Recruiting2
DB01073Fludarabine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00956Hydrocodone1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01204Mitoxantrone1 / 2Recruiting1
DB12874Quizartinib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB08877Ruxolitinib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB09312Antilymphocyte immunoglobulin (horse)2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00928Azacitidine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01008Busulfan2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00493Cefotaxime2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00531Cyclophosphamide2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00091Cyclosporine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB13874Enasidenib2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01073Fludarabine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB12504JNJ-403465272Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00563Methotrexate2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetil2Recruiting1
DB00864Tacrolimus2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00242CladribineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00091CyclosporineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00987CytarabineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00099FilgrastimNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01073FludarabineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01042MelphalanNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01204MitoxantroneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00877SirolimusNot AvailableRecruiting1