Cytochrome P450 2C9

Details

Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Synonyms
  • (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  • (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  • (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase
  • 1.14.13.-
  • Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase
  • CYP2C10
  • CYPIIC9
  • Cytochrome P-450MP
  • Cytochrome P450 MP-4
  • Cytochrome P450 MP-8
  • Cytochrome P450 PB-1
  • S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0005471|Cytochrome P450 2C9
MDSLVVLVLCLSCLLLLSLWRQSSGRGKLPPGPTPLPVIGNILQIGIKDISKSLTNLSKV
YGPVFTLYFGLKPIVVLHGYEAVKEALIDLGEEFSGRGIFPLAERANRGFGIVFSNGKKW
KEIRRFSLMTLRNFGMGKRSIEDRVQEEARCLVEELRKTKASPCDPTFILGCAPCNVICS
IIFHKRFDYKDQQFLNLMEKLNENIKILSSPWIQICNNFSPIIDYFPGTHNKLLKNVAFM
KSYILEKVKEHQESMDMNNPQDFIDCFLMKMEKEKHNQPSEFTIESLENTAVDLFGAGTE
TTSTTLRYALLLLLKHPEVTAKVQEEIERVIGRNRSPCMQDRSHMPYTDAVVHEVQRYID
LLPTSLPHAVTCDIKFRNYLIPKGTTILISLTSVLHDNKEFPNPEMFDPHHFLDEGGNFK
KSKYFMPFSAGKRICVGEALAGMELFLFLTSILQNFNLKSLVDPKNLDTTPVVNGFASVP
PFYQLCFIPV
Number of residues
490
Molecular Weight
55627.365
Theoretical pI
7.99
GO Classification
Functions
(R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity / (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity / (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase activity / arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity / aromatase activity / caffeine oxidase activity / drug binding / heme binding / iron ion binding / monooxygenase activity / oxidoreductase activity / oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen / oxygen binding / steroid hydroxylase activity
Processes
arachidonic acid metabolic process / cellular amide metabolic process / drug catabolic process / drug metabolic process / epoxygenase P450 pathway / exogenous drug catabolic process / monocarboxylic acid metabolic process / monoterpenoid metabolic process / omega-hydroxylase P450 pathway / oxidation-reduction process / oxidative demethylation / small molecule metabolic process / steroid metabolic process / urea metabolic process / xenobiotic metabolic process
Components
cytoplasm / endoplasmic reticulum membrane / intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016893|Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9)
ATGGATTCTCTTGTGGTCCTTGTGCTCTGTCTCTCATGTTTGCTTCTCCTTTCACTCTGG
AGACAGAGCTCTGGGAGAGGAAAACTCCCTCCTGGCCCCACTCCTCTCCCAGTGATTGGA
AATATCCTACAGATAGGTATTAAGGACATCAGCAAATCCTTAACCAATCTCTCAAAGGTC
TATGGCCCTGTGTTCACTCTGTATTTTGGCCTGAAACCCATAGTGGTGCTGCATGGATAT
GAAGCAGTGAAGGAAGCCCTGATTGATCTTGGAGAGGAGTTTTCTGGAAGAGGCATTTTC
CCACTGGCTGAAAGAGCTAACAGAGGATTTGGAATTGTTTTCAGCAATGGAAAGAAATGG
AAGGAGATCCGGCGTTTCTCCCTCATGACGCTGCGGAATTTTGGGATGGGGAAGAGGAGC
ATTGAGGACCGTGTTCAAGAGGAAGCCCGCTGCCTTGTGGAGGAGTTGAGAAAAACCAAG
GCCTCACCCTGTGATCCCACTTTCATCCTGGGCTGTGCTCCCTGCAATGTGATCTGCTCC
ATTATTTTCCATAAACGTTTTGATTATAAAGATCAGCAATTTCTTAACTTAATGGAAAAG
TTGAATGAAAACATCAAGATTTTGAGCAGCCCCTGGATCCAGATCTGCAATAATTTTTCT
CCTATCATTGATTACTTCCCGGGAACTCACAACAAATTACTTAAAAACGTTGCTTTTATG
AAAAGTTATATTTTGGAAAAAGTAAAAGAACACCAAGAATCAATGGACATGAACAACCCT
CAGGACTTTATTGATTGCTTCCTGATGAAAATGGAGAAGGAAAAGCACAACCAACCATCT
GAATTTACTATTGAAAGCTTGGAAAACACTGCAGTTGACTTGTTTGGAGCTGGGACAGAG
ACGACAAGCACAACCCTGAGATATGCTCTCCTTCTCCTGCTGAAGCACCCAGAGGTCACA
GCTAAAGTCCAGGAAGAGATTGAACGTGTGATTGGCAGAAACCGGAGCCCCTGCATGCAA
GACAGGAGCCACATGCCCTACACAGATGCTGTGGTGCACGAGGTCCAGAGATACATTGAC
CTTCTCCCCACCAGCCTGCCCCATGCAGTGACCTGTGACATTAAATTCAGAAACTATCTC
ATTCCCAAGGGCACAACCATATTAATTTCCCTGACTTCTGTGCTACATGACAACAAAGAA
TTTCCCAACCCAGAGATGTTTGACCCTCATCACTTTCTGGATGAAGGTGGCAATTTTAAG
AAAAGTAAATACTTCATGCCTTTCTCAGCAGGAAAACGGATTTGTGTGGGAGAAGCCCTG
GCCGGCATGGAGCTGTTTTTATTCCTGACCTCCATTTTACAGAACTTTAACCTGAAATCT
CTGGTTGACCCAAAGAACCTTGACACCACTCCAGTTGTCAATGGATTTGCCTCTGTGCCG
CCCTTCTACCAGCTGTGCTTCATTCCTGTCTGA
Chromosome Location
10
Locus
10q24
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP11712
UniProtKB Entry NameCP2C9_HUMAN
GenBank Gene IDAY341248
GenAtlas IDCYP2C9
HGNC IDHGNC:2623
General References
  1. Meehan RR, Gosden JR, Rout D, Hastie ND, Friedberg T, Adesnik M, Buckland R, van Heyningen V, Fletcher J, Spurr NK, et al.: Human cytochrome P-450 PB-1: a multigene family involved in mephenytoin and steroid oxidations that maps to chromosome 10. Am J Hum Genet. 1988 Jan;42(1):26-37. [PubMed:2827463]
  2. Kimura S, Pastewka J, Gelboin HV, Gonzalez FJ: cDNA and amino acid sequences of two members of the human P450IIC gene subfamily. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Dec 10;15(23):10053-4. [PubMed:3697070]
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  4. Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR, Rogers J: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):375-81. [PubMed:15164054]
  5. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  6. Yasumori T, Kawano S, Nagata K, Shimada M, Yamazoe Y, Kato R: Nucleotide sequence of a human liver cytochrome P-450 related to the rat male specific form. J Biochem. 1987 Nov;102(5):1075-82. [PubMed:2963808]
  7. Umbenhauer DR, Martin MV, Lloyd RS, Guengerich FP: Cloning and sequence determination of a complementary DNA related to human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1987 Feb 24;26(4):1094-9. [PubMed:3032244]
  8. Ged C, Umbenhauer DR, Bellew TM, Bork RW, Srivastava PK, Shinriki N, Lloyd RS, Guengerich FP: Characterization of cDNAs, mRNAs, and proteins related to human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1988 Sep 6;27(18):6929-40. [PubMed:3196692]
  9. Ohgiya S, Komori M, Ohi H, Shiramatsu K, Shinriki N, Kamataki T: Six-base deletion occurring in messages of human cytochrome P-450 in the CYP2C subfamily results in reduction of tolbutamide hydroxylase activity. Biochem Int. 1992 Sep;27(6):1073-81. [PubMed:1445376]
  10. Shimada T, Misono KS, Guengerich FP: Human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, a prototype of genetic polymorphism in oxidative drug metabolism. Purification and characterization of two similar forms involved in the reaction. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 15;261(2):909-21. [PubMed:3079764]
  11. Komori M, Hashizume T, Ohi H, Miura T, Kitada M, Nagashima K, Kamataki T: Cytochrome P-450 in human liver microsomes: high-performance liquid chromatographic isolation of three forms and their characterization. J Biochem. 1988 Dec;104(6):912-6. [PubMed:3243766]
  12. Srivastava PK, Yun CH, Beaune PH, Ged C, Guengerich FP: Separation of human liver microsomal tolbutamide hydroxylase and (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Mol Pharmacol. 1991 Jul;40(1):69-79. [PubMed:1857342]
  13. Haining RL, Hunter AP, Veronese ME, Trager WF, Rettie AE: Allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 2C9: baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 Sep 15;333(2):447-58. [PubMed:8809086]
  14. Sandhu P, Baba T, Guengerich FP: Expression of modified cytochrome P450 2C10 (2C9) in Escherichia coli, purification, and reconstitution of catalytic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Nov 1;306(2):443-50. [PubMed:8215449]
  15. Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T: Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 May;30(5):602-7. [PubMed:11950794]
  16. Honda A, Miyazaki T, Ikegami T, Iwamoto J, Maeda T, Hirayama T, Saito Y, Teramoto T, Matsuzaki Y: Cholesterol 25-hydroxylation activity of CYP3A. J Lipid Res. 2011 Aug;52(8):1509-16. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M014084. Epub 2011 May 16. [PubMed:21576599]
  17. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24275569]
  18. Williams PA, Cosme J, Ward A, Angove HC, Matak Vinkovic D, Jhoti H: Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9 with bound warfarin. Nature. 2003 Jul 24;424(6947):464-8. Epub 2003 Jul 13. [PubMed:12861225]
  19. Stubbins MJ, Harries LW, Smith G, Tarbit MH, Wolf CR: Genetic analysis of the human cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 locus. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):429-39. [PubMed:8946475]
  20. Bhasker CR, Miners JO, Coulter S, Birkett DJ: Allelic and functional variability of cytochrome P4502C9. Pharmacogenetics. 1997 Feb;7(1):51-8. [PubMed:9110362]
  21. Imai J, Ieiri I, Mamiya K, Miyahara S, Furuumi H, Nanba E, Yamane M, Fukumaki Y, Ninomiya H, Tashiro N, Otsubo K, Higuchi S: Polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene in Japanese epileptic patients: genetic analysis of the CYP2C9 locus. Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Feb;10(1):85-9. [PubMed:10739176]
  22. Dickmann LJ, Rettie AE, Kneller MB, Kim RB, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Schwarz UI: Identification and functional characterization of a new CYP2C9 variant (CYP2C9*5) expressed among African Americans. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):382-7. [PubMed:11455026]
  23. Higashi MK, Veenstra DL, Kondo LM, Wittkowsky AK, Srinouanprachanh SL, Farin FM, Rettie AE: Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy. JAMA. 2002 Apr 3;287(13):1690-8. [PubMed:11926893]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB025074-Hydroxy-3-[(1s)-3-Oxo-1-Phenylbutyl]-2h-Chromen-2-OneexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03317Heme CexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00196Fluconazoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00203Sildenafilapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00222GlimepirideapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00250Dapsoneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB00327Hydromorphoneapproved, illicitnosubstrateDetails
DB00469TenoxicamapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00470Dronabinolapproved, illicitunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00471MontelukastapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00472Fluoxetineapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00482Celecoxibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00549Zafirlukastapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00559Bosentanapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB00580Valdecoxibapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00582Voriconazoleapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00586Diclofenacapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00617ParamethadioneapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00675TamoxifenapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00678LosartanapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00682WarfarinapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00712Flurbiprofenapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00731Nateglinideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00744Zileutonapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00749Etodolacapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00784Mefenamic acidapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00814Meloxicamapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00870Suprofenapproved, withdrawnunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00916MetronidazoleapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00946Phenprocoumonapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00983Formoterolapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01015SulfamethoxazoleapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB01029Irbesartanapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01050IbuprofenapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01067Glipizideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01095FluvastatinapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB01104SertralineapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB01136Carvedilolapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01283Lumiracoxibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00969Alosetronapproved, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00176Fluvoxamineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00214TorasemideapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00252Phenytoinapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinhibitorinducerDetails
DB00412Rosiglitazoneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00448Lansoprazoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorinducerDetails
DB00503Ritonavirapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB00532Mephenytoinapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00673Aprepitantapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB00705DelavirdineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00967Desloratadineapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB01016GlyburideapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB01026Ketoconazoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01110Miconazoleapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01118Amiodaroneapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01124Tolbutamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01241GemfibrozilapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB13179TroleandomycinapprovedunknownDetails
DB01381Ginkgo bilobaapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01418Acenocoumarolapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB025074-Hydroxy-3-[(1s)-3-Oxo-1-Phenylbutyl]-2h-Chromen-2-OneexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04856DexloxiglumideinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB06442AvasimibeinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01098RosuvastatinapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01065Melatoninapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00796Candesartan cilexetilapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00227Lovastatinapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB00641SimvastatinapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01076AtorvastatinapprovednoinhibitorDetails
DB00439Cerivastatinapproved, withdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01072Atazanavirapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01181IfosfamideapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00619ImatinibapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00468QuinineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01142Doxepinapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB00321AmitriptylineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB04557Arachidonic AcidexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01045RifampicinapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB01174Phenobarbitalapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB00404Alprazolamapproved, illicit, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00363ClozapineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00829Diazepamapproved, illicit, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01357MestranolapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00788Naproxenapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00531Cyclophosphamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01355HexobarbitalexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00396Progesteroneapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00554Piroxicamapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00208TiclopidineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00338Omeprazoleapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00715Paroxetineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01435Antipyrineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00177Valsartanapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00188Bortezomibapproved, investigationalnosubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB01041Thalidomideapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB05109Trabectedinapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00313Valproic Acidapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00857Terbinafineapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00238NevirapineapprovedunknownDetails
DB06652VicrivirocinvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00972AzelastineapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00568Cinnarizineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB04841FlunarizineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01075Diphenhydramineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06725Lornoxicamapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01039FenofibrateapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00951Isoniazidapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00812Phenylbutazoneapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB06729SulfaphenazoleapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00444TeniposideapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06414EtravirineapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorinducerDetails
DB01320Fosphenytoinapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB01221Ketamineapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB00359Sulfadiazineapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01138SulfinpyrazoneapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00263Sulfisoxazoleapproved, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01198ZopicloneapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00564Carbamazepineapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB00794Primidoneapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB01201Rifapentineapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB00418Secobarbitalapproved, vet_approvedunknowninducerDetails
DB00625Efavirenzapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01097Leflunomideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB04868Nilotinibapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00398Sorafenibapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01101Capecitabineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00544FluorouracilapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06268Sitaxentanapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00752Tranylcypromineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01424Aminophenazoneapproved, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00216Eletriptanapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00758ClopidogrelapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00843DonepezilapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00661VerapamilapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00425ZolpidemapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01036Tolterodineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00328Indometacinapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00936Salicylic acidapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01628Etoricoxibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00921Buprenorphineapproved, illicit, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00818Propofolapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00672Chlorpropamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01120GliclazideapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00201CaffeineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00514DextromethorphanapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01009Ketoprofenapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB04725LicofeloneinvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06737ZaltoprofenexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06739SeratrodastexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06738KetobemidoneinvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06736Aceclofenacapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00402Eszopicloneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08798SulfamoxoleexperimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06697ArtemetherapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00613Amodiaquineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00701Amprenavirapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01217Anastrozoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01117AtovaquoneapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00307Bexaroteneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01156BupropionapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00091Ciclosporinapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00501Cimetidineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00604Cisaprideapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00257Clotrimazoleapproved, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01176CyclizineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00266DicoumarolapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00757Dolasetronapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00869DorzolamideapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00668Epinephrineapproved, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00783Estradiolapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00655EstroneapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00898EthanolapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01023Felodipineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01195Flecainideapproved, withdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01544Flunitrazepamapproved, illicitunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00502HaloperidolapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01159Halothaneapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB05381Histamineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01177IdarubicinapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00281Lidocaineapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01601LopinavirapprovedunknowninhibitorinducerDetails
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00333Methadoneapproved, illicitunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01028Methoxyfluraneapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01171Moclobemideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00745Modafinilapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorinducerDetails
DB00184NicotineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00904OndansetronapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00850PerphenazineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB03783PhenacetinwithdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01132Pioglitazoneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01411PranlukastinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01131ProguanilapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01069Promethazineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01589Quazepamapproved, illicitunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00908Quinidineapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00533Rofecoxibapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01037Selegilineapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06150Sulfadimethoxineapproved, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00576Sulfamethizoleapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00891SulfapyridineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00231Temazepamapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00624Testosteroneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00763MethimazoleapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00323Tolcaponeapproved, withdrawnnoinhibitorDetails
DB00347TrimethadioneapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00726TrimipramineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00197Troglitazoneinvestigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB04898Ximelagatranapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00495ZidovudineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00755Tretinoinapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01128BicalutamideapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01129Rabeprazoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01274Arformoterolapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB04574Estrone sulfateapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB06413Armodafinilapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB00255Diethylstilbestrolapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00420Promazineapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06594Agomelatineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB04831Tienilic acidwithdrawnunknownDetails
DB06174Noscapineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB04920Clevidipineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06370IndisulaminvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06803Niclosamideapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00515CisplatinapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06820SulconazoleapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01154Thiamylalapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08828Vismodegibapproved, investigationalnosubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB00374Treprostinilapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06204TapentadolapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06209PrasugrelapprovedyessubstrateDetails
DB08860PitavastatinapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08875Cabozantinibapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB06605ApixabanapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08896RegorafenibapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB08899EnzalutamideapprovedunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB04938Ospemifeneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00317Gefitinibapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06292DapagliflozinapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB09048Netupitantapproved, investigationalyessubstrateDetails
DB09080OlodaterolapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB09068Vortioxetineapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB08439ParecoxibapprovedunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB09280LumacaftorapprovednoinhibitorinducerDetails
DB09570Ixazomibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB11560Lesinuradapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB05812AbirateroneapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB08816TicagrelorapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09063CeritinibapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00322FloxuridineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB05219Crisaboroleapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB06595Midostaurinapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorinducerDetails
DB05015Belinostatapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB05541Brivaracetamapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB11611LifitegrastapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB13174RheinexperimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB11994Diacereinapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB03756Doconexentapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB11943Delafloxacinapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB01685TopiroxostatexperimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09120Zucapsaicinapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09118StiripentolapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09198LobeglitazoneexperimentalnoinhibitorDetails
DB09167DosulepinapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB11614RupatadineapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB12319Benzbromaroneinvestigational, withdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09238Manidipineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB13874Enasidenibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB13919CandesartanexperimentalunknownsubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB12070Letermovirapproved, investigationalnoinducerDetails
DB12332Rucaparibapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09061Cannabidiolapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB13943Testosterone cypionateapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13944Testosterone enanthateapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13946Testosterone undecanoateapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13952Estradiol acetateapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13953Estradiol benzoateapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13954Estradiol cypionateapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13955Estradiol dienanthateapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13956Estradiol valerateapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13941Piperaquineexperimental, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB11901Apalutamideapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB11633Isavuconazoleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorinducerDetails
DB11586Asunaprevirapproved, investigational, withdrawnnosubstrateDetails
DB13975Cimicifuga racemosaapproved, experimentalnoinhibitorDetails
DB14011NabiximolsinvestigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB14009Medical Cannabisexperimental, investigationalnosubstrateinhibitorDetails
DB13746Bioallethrinapproved, experimentalnosubstrateDetails
DB00486Nabiloneapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB14033Acetyl sulfisoxazoleapproved, vet_approvedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB11995Avatrombopagapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB11672Curcuminapproved, experimental, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB00949FelbamateapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB12582PiperineinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB13136Fluindioneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB14568Ivosidenibapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB12474Lynestrenolapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB00615Rifabutinapproved, investigationalnoinducerDetails
DB11753Rifamycinapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorinducerDetails
DB06654Safinamideapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB04818IproniazidwithdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01645GenisteininvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09078Lenvatinibapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB08881VemurafenibapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00839Tolazamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00414Acetohexamideapproved, investigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01251Gliquidoneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01289GlisoxepideinvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08962Glibornurideinvestigational, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13406CarbutamideexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13675MetahexamideexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08496(R)-warfarinexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB14055(S)-Warfarinexperimental, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB04911Oritavancinapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06717FosaprepitantapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB09288PropacetamolexperimentalnosubstrateDetails
DB14635Curcumin sulfateexperimentalnoDetails
DB01080VigabatrinapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB06218LacosamideapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB09213Dexibuprofenapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB08912Dabrafenibapproved, investigationalnoinducerDetails
DB00834Mifepristoneapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB00980Ramelteonapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB00440Trimethoprimapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB04665CoumarinexperimentalnosubstrateDetails
DB14025ClinafloxacininvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB06731SeproxetineinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00621Oxandroloneapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB11963Dacomitinibapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB00220NelfinavirapprovednoinhibitorDetails
DB07615TranilastinvestigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB12245Triclabendazoleapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB11823Esketamineapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB00465KetorolacapprovedunknownDetails
DB00304DesogestrelapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB00455Loratadineapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB12371Siponimodapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00334Olanzapineapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB12147Erdafitinibapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00476DuloxetineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00461NabumetoneapprovednosubstrateDetails